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It is generally accepted that morphine exerts its analgesic effect by binding to specific opiate receptors in the brain and spinal cord. Since Hughes et al. isolated and identified two endogenous pentapeptides, Met- and Leu-enkephalin, from the brain and found that they acted as agonists at opiate receptors, alpha-, beta- and gamma-endorphins, larger(More)
The effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptides (PACAPs: PACAP27, PACAP38) on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity were examined using cultured retinal neurons obtained from 3- to 5-day old Wistar rats. Cell viability was evaluated by double staining with fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide. Effects of PACAPs on the increase in(More)
The pion-nucleon coupling constant g πN is studied on the basis of the QCD sum rules. Both the Borel sum rules and the finite energy sum rules for g πN are used to examine the effects of higher dimensional operators (up to dim. 7) and α s corrections in the operator product expansion. Agreement with the experimental number is reached only when S π /S N is(More)
Experiments were carried out to determine whether stress induces biochemical changes in the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) system in anterior (AL) and intermediate-posterior lobe (IPL) of rat. In a series of pulse-chase experiments, acute stress led to an increase in POMC biosynthesis and shorter half-life in AL. However, when the animals were chronically(More)
We have shown previously that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of naloxone (a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist) or naloxonazine (a selective μ1-opioid receptor antagonist) at the maintenance phase of hibernation arouses Syrian hamsters from hibernation. This study was designed to clarify the role of β-endorphin (an endogenous μ-opioid(More)
beta-Endorphin in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland is posttranslationally modified to produce opioid inactive peptides. Whether these are metabolites or biologically relevant products has not been known. It was found that repeated stress induces increased biosynthesis and release of beta-endorphin-like substances from the intermediate lobe of(More)
The effects of prostaglandin (PG) E2 on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity were examined using primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. The cell viability was significantly reduced when cultures were briefly exposed to either glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) then incubated with normal medium for 1 h. Similar cytotoxicity was observed with the brief(More)
The central body temperature (T(b)) regulation system during hibernation was investigated in Syrian hamsters of either sex. Hibernation induced in Syrian hamsters by housing them in a cold room under short day-light/dark cycle was confirmed by marked reductions in the heart rate, T(b) and respiratory rate. The hibernation of hamsters was classified into (i)(More)
Hibernation in mammalians such as hamsters is a physiological state characterized by an extreme reduction of various functions such as body temperature and metabolism. Under such severe conditions, the central nervous system (CNS) activity is maintained at a functionally responsive level. Although hibernation is an interesting behavioral state, the(More)