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It is generally accepted that morphine exerts its analgesic effect by binding to specific opiate receptors in the brain and spinal cord. Since Hughes et al. isolated and identified two endogenous pentapeptides, Met- and Leu-enkephalin, from the brain and found that they acted as agonists at opiate receptors, alpha-, beta- and gamma-endorphins, larger(More)
The central body temperature (T(b)) regulation system during hibernation was investigated in Syrian hamsters of either sex. Hibernation induced in Syrian hamsters by housing them in a cold room under short day-light/dark cycle was confirmed by marked reductions in the heart rate, T(b) and respiratory rate. The hibernation of hamsters was classified into (i)(More)
The effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptides (PACAPs: PACAP27, PACAP38) on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity were examined using cultured retinal neurons obtained from 3- to 5-day old Wistar rats. Cell viability was evaluated by double staining with fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide. Effects of PACAPs on the increase in(More)
The effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on glutamate-induced delayed death were examined using the primary cultures of rat retinal neurons. Effects of VIP on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity were evaluated by double staining with fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide. Glutamate (1 mM) was applied to the culture for 10 min in the presence and(More)
Kyotorphin (L-Tyr-L-Arg), an analgesic dipeptide isolated from the bovine brain, and its analogue, L-Tyr-D-Arg (D-kyotorphin), have a naloxone-reversible analgesic effect. Both peptides (10−5 M) induced an approximately 4-fold increase of the basal release of Met-enkephalin from striatal slices. Therefore they may produce their analgesic effects through(More)
The effects of prostaglandin (PG) E2 on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity were examined using primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. The cell viability was significantly reduced when cultures were briefly exposed to either glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) then incubated with normal medium for 1 h. Similar cytotoxicity was observed with the brief(More)
1 Administration of an analgesic dose (10 mg/kg, s.c.) of morphine increased the concentration of a noradrenaline metabolite, normetanephrine (NM) in the spinal cord of normal rats. The time course of the change in the NM concentration corresponded approximately to that of the morphine analgesia. The concentration of noradrenaline was not affected.2 A(More)