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A cDNA encoding a 100-kDa subunit (XenNR1) of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor type has been cloned from Xenopus central nervous system. When XenNR1 is coexpressed in a mammalian cell line with a recently cloned 51-kDa non-NMDA receptor subunit (XenU1), also from Xenopus, it forms a functional unitary receptor exhibiting the(More)
The distribution patterns of cystatin C and apolipoprotein E (apo E) were studied immunocytochemically in the gerbil hippocampus before and after 5 min ischemia. In the controls, cystatin C was distributed mainly in astrocytes. In addition, a large number of dots positive for cystatin C were observed around the outlines of neuronal perikarya in the CA1(More)
We found that apolipoprotein E (apo E) accumulates in a trace of the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell layer within 6 months after 5 min ischaemia. Intense methenamine-silver (M-S) stainings were seen in the entire CA1 subfield 3 months after ischaemia. The M-S staining pattern may imply the appearance of soluble A beta-like proteins. The apo E-positive trace(More)
To investigate the contribution of the hypothalamic cholinergic and noradrenergic neurons in 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) induced hyperglycemia, we after microwave irradiation analyzed the contents of the neurotransmitters and the metabolites in the microdissected hypothalamic nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and(More)
Hypothalamic cholinergic system plays an important role in the regulation of body temperature and fluid balance. We have previously shown that cholinergic stimulation of the anterior hypothalamus and preoptic area was accompanied by a fall in body temperature, increased water intake, and increased Fos protein in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and(More)
The effects of dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptors on striatal acetylcholine (ACh) releases were investigated by in vivo microdialysis. All drugs were applied via dialysis membrane directly to the striatum. The levels of ACh release were increased by 10(-4) M SKF38393, a D1 receptor agonist. Although 10(-4) M SCH23390, a D1 receptor antagonist, exhibited an(More)
A high-affinity homomeric, non-NMDA glutamate receptor was previously purified from the amphibian Xenopus laevis. We have obtained nine peptide sequences from its subunit, applied in cDNA cloning. The cDNA encodes a subunit (XenU1) containing all nine sequences. The 51,600-dalton mature subunit has four hydrophobic domains homologous to the four in the(More)
An epidemic of infantile papular acrodermatitis (I.P.A.) (Gianotti's disease) occurred in Matsuyama City, in south-east Japan in 1974-75. Patients ages ranged from less than one year to eight years. Hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected by an immune adherence haemagglutination method in the serum samples of 48 of the 54 patients tested. HBsAg(More)
To clarify the role of the hypothalamic cholinergic system in the regulation of peripheral glucose metabolism, we investigated hypothalamic cholinergic activities after administration of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). Intravenous administration of 2-DG (500 mg/kg) caused neuroglycopenia and marked hyperglycemia; the level of plasma glucose increased to 210% of the(More)
The effects of stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) or lateral hypothalamus (LH) with potassium chloride through a microdialysis probe were studied. The concentrations of ACh and norepinephrine (NE) in the dialysate obtained from the hypothalamic nuclei and plasma glucose concentration were measured. Stimulation of the hypothalamic nuclei, VMH(More)