Hirofumi Noguchi

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Benzalacetone synthase (BSA) is a novel plant-specific polyketide synthase that catalyzes a one step decarboxylative condensation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA with malonyl-CoA to produce the C6-C4 skeleton of phenylbutanoids in higher plants. A cDNA encoding BAS was for the first time cloned and sequenced from rhubarb (Rheum palmatum), a medicinal plant rich in(More)
Human-chimpanzee comparative genome research is essential for narrowing down genetic changes involved in the acquisition of unique human features, such as highly developed cognitive functions, bipedalism or the use of complex language. Here, we report the high-quality DNA sequence of 33.3 megabases of chimpanzee chromosome 22. By comparing the whole(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The role of two forms of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) in gastric mucosal lesions is not well understood. The regulation of both forms of COX and the effect of COX-2 on the repair process of gastric mucosal lesions in mice were investigated. METHODS Gastric mucosal erosions and ulcers were induced experimentally in mice. The level of(More)
Because of a critical shortage in suitable organs, many patients with terminal liver disease die each year before liver transplantation can be performed. Transplantation of isolated hepatocytes has been proposed for the temporary metabolic support of patients awaiting liver transplantation or spontaneous reversion of their liver disease. A major limitation(More)
Calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine A and FK506 have been used for transplant therapy and treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, the inhibition of calcineurin outside the immune system has a number of side effects, including hyperglycemia. In the search for safer drugs, we developed a cell-permeable inhibitor of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated(More)
Severe acute liver failure, even when transient, must be treated by transplantation and lifelong immune suppression. Treatment could be improved by bioartificial liver (BAL) support, but this approach is hindered by a shortage of human hepatocytes. To generate an alternative source of cells for BAL support, we differentiated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells(More)
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) exclusively stimulates the growth of endothelial cells without replication of vascular smooth muscle cells and acts as a survival factor against endothelial cell death. Therefore we hypothesized that a decrease in local vascular HGF might be related to the pathogenesis of peripheral arterial disease. We initially evaluated(More)
Although application of the Edmonton protocol has markedly improved outcomes for pancreatic islet transplantation, the insulin independence rate after islet transplantation from one donor pancreas has proven to remain low. During the isolation process and subsequent clinical transplantation, islets are subjected to severe adverse conditions that impair(More)
BACKGROUND The polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) family of enzymes regulates the initial steps of mucin-type O-glycosylation. N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases might show novel patterns of GalNAc-T glycosylation on tumour-derived proteins, which could influence cancer biology, but its mechanisms are unclear. We investigated the(More)
Hippocalcin is a member of the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) protein family that is highly expressed in hippocampal pyramidal cells and moderately expressed in the neurons of cerebral cortex, cerebellum and striatum. Here we examined the physiological roles of hippocalcin using targeted gene disruption. Hippocalcin-deficient (-/-) mice displayed no obvious(More)