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Although hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) can act synergistically or antagonistically with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling, molecular mechanism of their crosstalk remains unknown. Using antibodies which selectively distinguished receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) phosphorylated at linker regions from those at C-terminal regions, we herein(More)
Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a member of hedgehog peptides family, is expressed in gastric gland epithelium. To elucidate Shh function to gastric mucosal cells, we examined the effect of Shh on the proliferation of a rat normal gastric mucosal cell line, RGM-1. RGM-1 cells express essential components of Shh receptor system, patched-1, and smoothened. Shh enhanced(More)
Salacia reticulata Wight (S. reticulata) is a herbal medicine used for treatment of early diabetes in Ayurvedic medicine. In previous reports, the extract of S. reticulata showed preventive effects on obesity and various metabolic disorders and a suppressive effect on differentiation in premature adipocytes. The aim of this research was to elucidate the(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies have demonstrated that intratumoral expression of catabolizing and anabolizing enzymes for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is important in the response of cancers to 5-FU-based chemotherapy. We investigated the influence of other chemotherapeutic agents or cytokines, which are often administered for enhancing the efficacy of 5-FU, on the(More)
Fridovich identified CuZnSOD in 1969 and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in 1973, and proposed "the Superoxide Theory," which postulates that superoxide (O2 (•-)) is the origin of most reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that it undergoes a chain reaction in a cell, playing a central role in the ROS producing system. Increased oxidative stress on an(More)
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced accumulation of protoporphyrin IX is a useful approach to the early detection and treatment of cancers. To investigate the role of ferrochelatase in the accumulation of protoporphyrin, we first made mouse fibroblast Balb/3T3 cells highly expressing ferrochelatase and examined the(More)
Cancer cells often gain advantage by reducing the tumor-suppressive activity of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) together with stimulation of its oncogenic activity as in Ras-transformed cells; however, molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. TGF-beta activates both its type I receptor (TbetaRI) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), which(More)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs for arthritis, inflammation, and cardiovascular protection. However, they cause gastrointestinal complications. The pathophysiology of these complications has mostly been ascribed to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs' action on the cyclooxygenase inhibition and the subsequent(More)
Proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin, can be activated not only by PAR1-activating peptides (PAR1APs) based on the N-terminal cryptic tethered ligand sequence but also by an N-palmitoylated (Pal) peptide, Pal-RCLSSSAVANRSKKSRALF-amide (P1pal-19), based on the intracellular loop 3 of PAR1, designated(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying the posttranslational modification of proteins in gastrointestinal cancer are still unknown. Here, we investigated the role of methylglyoxal modifications in gastrointestinal tumors. Methylglyoxal is a reactive dicarbonyl compound produced from cellular glycolytic intermediates that reacts non-enzymatically with proteins.(More)