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This paper presents a parameter estimation method that makes H.264's weighted prediction (WP) practical for fade effects with quasi-optimal accuracy and low computational cost. Its high accuracy results from the fact that it is based on a theoretically-derived approximate relationship between ideal WP parameters and image characteristics that are robust(More)
DNA microarray hybridization was used to measure the changes of mRNA levels over time during the development of delayed pigmented spots on the dorsal skin of F1 mice of HR-1 x HR/De. Upregulation of a number of interferon (IFN)-gamma-stimulated genes was detected in delayed pigmented lesions, suggesting that IFN-gamma may play a pivotal role in the(More)
Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of human melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) promoter indicated that an E-box (CANNTG) is present immediately upstream of the transcriptional initiation site. The presence of the CATGTG motif suggests that MC1R gene expression may be regulated by a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine-zipper (bHLH-LZ) type transcription factor. The(More)
BACKGROUND Skin pigmentation induced by ultraviolet B radiation is caused in part by inflammation mediated by cytokines secreted from keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the irradiated area. Heparanase is also activated in the irradiated skin, and this leads to loss of heparan sulfate at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), resulting in uncontrolled diffusion(More)
Previous reports have suggested the existence of photoreceptors for visible radiation at the surface of the human body. Rhodopsin is a well-known photosensitive protein found in the rod cells of the retina and detects light/dark contrast. Cone opsins are also photosensitive receptors in the cone cells of the retina and detect colour. Here, we describe(More)
BACKGROUND Solar lentigo appears as dark brown spots that occur on sun-exposed areas and is considered to be a hallmark of aged skin. Although considerable knowledge about acute pigmentation has recently been accumulated, little is yet known about the mechanisms underlying chronic- and delayed-type hyperpigmentation, such as solar lentigo. OBJECTIVES To(More)
In a virtual weightless environment, subjects' orientation skills were studied to examine what kind of cognitive errors people make when they moved through the interior space of virtual space stations and what kind of visual information effectively decreases those errors. Subjects wearing a head-mounted display moved from one end to the other end in space(More)
BACKGROUND Astronauts have reported spatial disorientation and navigation problems inside spacecraft whose interior visual vertical direction varies from module to module. If they had relevant preflight practice they might orient better. This experiment examined the influence of relative body orientation and individual spatial skills during VR training on a(More)
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) have an important role as calcium channels in the regulation of intracellular calcium levels in the nervous system and muscle. In the present study, we investigated the expression of RyR in human epidermis. Immunohistochemical studies and reverse transcription-PCR indicated the expression of RyR type 1, 2, and 3 proteins in(More)
BACKGROUND Repeated exposures to ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) induce pigmented spots on dorsal skin of (HR-1 x HR/De) F(1) hairless mouse. We showed previously that this mouse is suitable for studies of melanocyte function. OBJECTIVE To clarify the mechanism of development of pigmented spots induced by chronic UVB exposure. METHODS We used light and(More)