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A peptide having the strong free radical scavenging activities was separated from casein protein hydrolysate by chromatographic analyses such as ion-exchange and gel filtration. SP-II fraction obtained by SP-Sephadex C-25 chromatography showed the most potent superoxide anion scavenging activity (SOSA), and it was further separated into a peptide using an(More)
The crystal structure of ferricytochrome c from rice embryos has been solved by X-ray diffraction to a resolution of 2.0 A, applying a single isomorphous replacement method with anomalous scattering effects. The initial molecular model was built on a graphics display system and was refined by the Hendrickson and Konnert method. The R factor was reduced to(More)
Behavioral traits of sperm are adapted to the reproductive strategy that each species employs. In polyandrous species, spermatozoa often form motile clusters, which might be advantageous for competing with sperm from other males. Despite this presumed advantage for reproductive success, little is known about how sperm form such functional assemblies.(More)
In December 2011 a long-range acoustic communication experiment was conducted in deep water, west of Izu-Ogasawara Islands, Japan. The experiment involved a stationary source (450-550 Hz) and an 18-element vertical array (102-m aperture), both deployed at around the sound channel axis. Initial analysis of data demonstrates that a data rate of 400 bits/s can(More)
Multiuser communication is demonstrated using experimental data (450-550 Hz) collected in deep water, south of Japan. The multiple users are spatially distributed either in depth or range while a 114-m long, 20-element vertical array (i.e., base station) is deployed to around the sound channel axis (~1000 m). First, signals received separately from ranges(More)
Meiotic progression requires the translation of maternal mRNAs in a strict temporal order. In isolated animal oocytes, translation of maternal mRNAs containing a cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE), such as cyclin B, is activated by in vitro stimulation of meiotic resumption which induces phosphorylation of CPEB (CPE-binding protein) and elongation of(More)
In the coastal squid Loligo bleekeri, each male produces one of two types of fertilization-competent spermatozoa (eusperm) that exhibit morphological and behavioral differences. Large "consort" males produce short-tailed spermatozoa that display free-swimming behavior when ejaculated into seawater. Small "sneaker" males, on the other hand, produce(More)
In yeast, plant, and mammalian somatic cells, short poly(A) tails on mRNAs are subject to uridylation, which mediates mRNA decay. Although mRNA uridylation has never been reported in animal oocytes, maternal mRNAs with short poly(A) tails are believed to be translationally repressed. In this study, we found that 96% of cyclin B mRNAs with short poly(A)(More)
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