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Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is known to mediate the hydrolysis not only of triacylglycerol stored in adipose tissue but also of cholesterol esters in the adrenals, ovaries, testes, and macrophages. To elucidate its precise role in the development of obesity and steroidogenesis, we generated HSL knockout mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem(More)
Lipoprotein lipase is the principal enzyme that hydrolyzes circulating triglycerides and liberates free fatty acids that can be used as energy by cardiac muscle. Although lipoprotein lipase is expressed by and is found on the surface of cardiomyocytes, its transfer to the luminal surface of endothelial cells is thought to be required for lipoprotein lipase(More)
Squalene synthase (SS) catalyzes the biosynthesis of squalene, the first specific intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. To test the feasibility of lowering plasma cholesterol by inhibiting hepatic SS, we generated mice in which SS is specifically knocked out in the liver (L-SSKO) using Cre-loxP technology. Hepatic SS activity of L-SSKO mice(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, which converts HMG-CoA to mevalonate, catalyzes the ratelimiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis. Because this mevalonate pathway also produces several non-sterol isoprenoid compounds, the level of HMG-CoA reductase activity may coordinate many cellular(More)
Intracellular lipid accumulation in the heart is associated with cardiomyopathy, yet the precise role of triglyceride (TG) remains unclear. With exercise, wild type hearts develop physiologic hypertrophy. This was associated with greater TG stores and a marked induction of the TG-synthesizing enzyme diacylglycerol (DAG) acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1). Transgenic(More)
Long-chain fatty acids (FA) supply 70-80% of the energy needs for normal cardiac muscle. To determine the sources of FA that supply the heart, [(14)C]palmitate complexed to bovine serum albumin and [(3)H]triolein [triglyceride (TG)] incorporated into Intralipid were simultaneously injected into fasted male C57BL/6 mice. The ratio of TG to FA uptake was much(More)
RATIONALE Hydrolysis of intracellular cholesterol ester (CE) is the key step in the reverse cholesterol transport in macrophage foam cells. We have recently shown that neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (Nceh)1 and hormone-sensitive lipase (Lipe) are key regulators of this process in mouse macrophages. However, it remains unknown which enzyme is critical(More)
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme in the hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Conflicting results have been reported concerning its role in atherogenesis. To determine the effects of the overexpressed LPL on diet-induced atherosclerosis, we have generated low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) knockout mice that overexpressed human LPL(More)
Cholesterol ester (CE)-laden macrophage foam cells are the hallmark of atherosclerosis, and the hydrolysis of intracellular CE is one of the key steps in foam cell formation. Although hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) and cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH), which is identical to carboxylsterase 1 (CES1, hCE1), were proposed to mediate the neutral CE hydrolase(More)
Heparan sulfates, the carbohydrate chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, play an important role in basement membrane organization and endothelial barrier function. We explored whether endothelial cells secrete a heparan sulfate degrading heparanase under inflammatory conditions and what pathways were responsible for heparanase expression. Heparanase mRNA(More)