Peptide YY (PYY), a 36-amino-acid peptide, is secreted primarily from L-cells residing in the intestinal mucosa of the ileum and large intestine. PYY, which belongs to a family of peptides including neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pancreatic polypeptide, is released into the circulation as PYY(1-36) and PYY(3-36); the latter is the major form of PYY in gut mucosal… (More)
Obestatin is a 23-amino acid peptide, initially isolated from rat stomach as an endogenous ligand for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Obestatin is derived from proteolytic cleavage of a 117-amino acid precursor, preproghrelin. Ghrelin increases food intake, body weight, and gastric emptying, whereas obestatin has the opposite effects. In this study,… (More)
OBJECTIVE Ghrelin is thought to be involved in the regulation of eating behaviour and energy metabolism in acute and chronic feeding states. Circulating plasma ghrelin levels in healthy humans have been found to decrease significantly after oral glucose administration. Because it is suggested that eating behaviour may influence the secretion of ghrelin and… (More)
Ghrelin was reported to enhance GLP-1 secretion after glucose load in mice.
INTRODUCTION Both dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GI) have been reported to change the incretin and insulin secretion. To examine the effects of acarbose, miglitol, and sitagliptin on glucose metabolism and secretion of gut peptides, we conducted a crossover study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS… (More)
— The temperature-independence point (TIP) of the drain current for MOS transistors in a 0.1µm-scale pocket-implant technology is gate-length (L g) dependent and has different magnitudes for n-MOSFET and p-MOSFET. Circuits such as ring-oscillators have a TIP, lying between the values for n-and p-MOSFET. The circuit TIP is close to the n-MOSFET TIP for long… (More)