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A combination of microneedle pretreatment and iontophoresis was evaluated for the potential to increase skin permeation of drugs. Two model compounds with low and high molecular D(2)O and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans (FD-4, FD-10, FD-40, FD-70 and FD-2000; average molecular weight of 3.8, 10.1, 39.0, 71.2 and 200.0 kDa), respectively, were(More)
The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of skin thickness on the in vitro permeabilities of 3 model drugs with different physicochemical properties (nicorandil (NR), isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and flurbiprofen (FP)) through Sprague-Dawley rat (rat) or Yucatan micropig (YMP) skin. Intact, dermis-split, stratum corneum-stripped or stratum(More)
PURPOSE The usefulness of the synthetic membrane, Strat-M™ as an alternative to human and animal skins was evaluated by estimating the skin permeabilities of chemical compounds. METHOD Thirteen chemical compounds with molecular weights (M.W.) of 152-289 and lipophilicities (log Ko/w) of -0.9 to 3.5 were selected. Strat-M™, excised human skin, or hairless(More)
Orally administrated diosgenin, a steroidal saponin found in several plants including Dioscorea villosa, recovers skin thickness reduced in ovariectomized mice, and plays an important role in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Thus, diosgenin is an active element of cosmeceutical and dietary supplements. However, we have already elucidated that the skin(More)
If titanium dioxide nanoparticles are inert and non-biodegradable, they must be evaluated similarly to fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and asbestos. We surveyed the titanium level in typical raw food materials, and then intravenously injected titanium dioxide nanoparticles (primary particle diameter: 15 nm; secondary particle size: 220 nm) in mice and(More)
The aim of the present work was to develop a minimally invasive system for the delivery of macromolecular drugs to the deep skin tissues, so-called in-skin electroporation (IN-SKIN EP), using a microneedle (MN) electrode array. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (FD-4: average molecular weight, 4.3 kDa) was used as the model macromolecular drug. MNs(More)
Chitosan-plasmid DNA (pDNA) complex powders as a pulmonary gene delivery system were prepared with a supercritical carbon dioxide (CO(2)) process and their in vivo activity was evaluated. The powders with mannitol as a carrier were prepared by dispersing aqueous solutions of a luciferase expression plasmid driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV-Luc)(More)
The permeation pathway of macromolecules and nanospheres through skin was evaluated using fluorescent isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (average MW, 4 kDa) (FD-4) and nanospheres (500 nm in diameter) in hairless rat abdominal skin and porcine ear skin as well as a three-dimensional cultured human skin model (cultured skin model). A low molecular hydrophilic(More)
Using advanced topical formulations containing potential chemical enhancer(s) or physical penetration-enhancing tools capable of delivering entrapped drug(s) directly into skin tissues with little influence of the stratum corneum barrier, local and systemic drug disposition may be markedly similar to direct injection into the skin and muscle. The objective(More)
The objective of the present study was to obtain information to develop an effective delivery device regarding a sophisticated hollow microneedle array-patch system. Thus, the potential of hollow microneedles was investigated for enhancing the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic large molecular compounds, and the effect of variable parameters on drug(More)