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A process is described to produce single sheets of functionalized graphene through thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide. The process yields a wrinkled sheet structure resulting from reaction sites involved in oxidation and reduction processes. The topological features of single sheets, as measured by atomic force microscopy, closely match predictions of(More)
One of the keys towards high efficiency thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems lies in spectral control. Here, we present detailed performance predictions of realistic TPV systems incorporating experimentally demonstrated advanced spectral control components. Compared to the blackbody emitter, the optimized two-dimensional (2D) tantalum (Ta)(More)
The design and simulation of a wide angle, spectrally selective absorber/emitter metallic photonic crystal (MPhC) is presented. By using dielectric filled cavities, the angular, spectrally selective absorption/emission of the MPhC is dramatically enhanced over an air filled design by minimizing diffraction losses. Theoretical analysis is performed and(More)
Structure control in solution-processed hybrid perovskites is crucial to design and fabricate highly efficient solar cells. Here, we utilize in situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the structural evolution and film morphologies of methylammonium lead tri-iodide/chloride (CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)) in(More)
Hierarchical porous polymer materials are of increasing importance because of their potential application in catalysis, separation technology, or bioengineering. Examples for their synthesis exist, but there is a need for a facile yet versatile conceptual approach to such hierarchical scaffolds and quantitative characterization of their nonperiodic pore(More)
Mesoporous nanomaterials have attracted widespread interest because of their structural versatility for applications including catalysis, separation, and nanomedicine. We report a one-pot synthesis method for a class of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) containing both cubic and hexagonally structured compartments within one particle. These(More)
Mesoporous transition metal nitrides are interesting materials for energy conversion and storage applications due to their conductivity and durability. We present ordered mixed titanium-niobium (8:2, 1:1) nitrides with gyroidal network structures synthesized from triblock terpolymer structure-directed mixed oxides. The materials retain both macroscopic(More)
We report the design, optimization, and experimental results of large area commercial silicon solar cell based thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems. Using global non-linear optimization tools, we demonstrate theoretically a maximum radiative heat-to-electricity efficiency of 6.4% and a corresponding output electrical power density of 0.39 W cm(More)
Photovoltaic light trapping theory and experiment do not always clearly demonstrate how much useful optical absorption is enhanced, as opposed to parasitic absorption that cannot improve efficiencies. In this work, we develop a flexible flux plane method for capturing these parasitic losses within finite-difference time-domain simulations, which was applied(More)
We report the design of dielectric-filled anti-reflection coated (ARC) two-dimensional (2D) metallic photonic crystals (MPhCs) capable of omnidirectional, polarization insensitive, wavelength selective emission/absorption. Using non-linear global optimization methods, optimized hafnium oxide (HfO 2)-filled ARC 2D Tantalum (Ta) PhC designs exhibiting up to(More)