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Lymphocyte recruitment and activation have been implicated in the progression of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the roles of specific lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokines during stroke remain to be clarified. Here we demonstrate that the infiltration of T cells into the brain, as well as the cytokines interleukin-23 (IL-23) and IL-17,(More)
BACKGROUND Gene therapy may be a promising approach for treatment of brain ischemia, although the efficiency of postischemic gene therapy is not established. Our goal in this study was to examine the effects of gene transfer of interleukin-10 (IL-10), an antiinflammatory cytokine, after induction of brain ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS Brain ischemia was(More)
BACKGROUND Recent evidence has suggested that reactive oxygen species are important signaling molecules in vascular cells and play a pivotal role in the development of vascular diseases. The activity of NAD(P)H oxidase has been identified as the major source of reactive oxygen species in vascular endothelial cells. However, the precise molecular structure(More)
The C242T polymorphism of p22phox, a component of NAD(P)H oxidase, may have an impact on cardiovascular diseases; however, the association between this polymorphism and brain infarction is not fully understood. Here, we investigate the relationship between the C242T polymorphism and brain infarction in Japan. We recruited 1055 patients with brain infarction(More)
Post-ischemic inflammation is an essential step in the progression of ischemic stroke. This review focuses on the function of infiltrating immune cells, macrophages, and T cells, in ischemic brain injury. The brain is a sterile organ; however, the activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 is pivotal in the beginning of post-ischemic inflammation.(More)
Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-B plays a neuroprotective role in brain damages, including ischemic stroke. It has been suggested recently that PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) expressed in brain pericytes as well as in neurons and astrocytes may mediate the neuroprotective role of PDGF-B. The aims of this study were to elucidate the roles of PDGFRβ signaling(More)
Activation of Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) may have an important role in ischemic cell death by means of intracellular overload of Na(+) and Ca(2+). Recent evidence has suggested that inhibitors of NHE have protective effects on myocardial ischemia both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FR183998, an inhibitor of NHE, reduces(More)
Mechanisms of post-stroke recovery are still poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that cortical reorganisation in the unaffected hemisphere plays an important role. A 59 year old man developed a small lacunar infarct in the left corona radiata, which then caused marked deterioration in a pre-existing left hemiparesis that had resulted from an earlier(More)
In central nervous system (CNS), pericytes have been proposed to play a role in broad functional activities including blood-brain barrier, microcirculation, and macrophage activity. However, contractile responses and Ca2+ signaling in CNS pericytes have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study is to investigate contractility and Ca2+ influx pathway(More)
Brain hypoxia or ischemia causes acidosis and the intracellular accumulation of Ca(2+) in neuron. The aims of the present study were to elucidate the interaction between intracellular pH and Ca(2+) during transient acidosis and its effects on the viability of neuronal and glial cells. Intracellular Ca(2+) and pH were measured using the fluorescence of(More)