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Lymphocyte recruitment and activation have been implicated in the progression of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the roles of specific lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokines during stroke remain to be clarified. Here we demonstrate that the infiltration of T cells into the brain, as well as the cytokines interleukin-23 (IL-23) and IL-17,(More)
BACKGROUND Recent evidence has suggested that reactive oxygen species are important signaling molecules in vascular cells and play a pivotal role in the development of vascular diseases. The activity of NAD(P)H oxidase has been identified as the major source of reactive oxygen species in vascular endothelial cells. However, the precise molecular structure(More)
Lymphocyte recruitment and activation have been implicated in the progression of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the roles of specific lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokines during stroke remain to be clarified. Here we demonstrate that the infiltration of T cells into the brain, as well as the cytokines interleukin-23 (IL-23) and IL-17,(More)
BACKGROUND Gene therapy may be a promising approach for treatment of brain ischemia, although the efficiency of postischemic gene therapy is not established. Our goal in this study was to examine the effects of gene transfer of interleukin-10 (IL-10), an antiinflammatory cytokine, after induction of brain ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS Brain ischemia was(More)
The C242T polymorphism of p22phox, a component of NAD(P)H oxidase, may have an impact on cardiovascular diseases; however, the association between this polymorphism and brain infarction is not fully understood. Here, we investigate the relationship between the C242T polymorphism and brain infarction in Japan. We recruited 1055 patients with brain infarction(More)
Post-ischemic inflammation is an essential step in the progression of brain ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the mechanism that activates infiltrating macrophages in the ischemic brain remains to be clarified. Here we demonstrate that peroxiredoxin (Prx) family proteins released extracellularly from necrotic brain cells induce expression of(More)
Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-B plays a neuroprotective role in brain damages, including ischemic stroke. It has been suggested recently that PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) expressed in brain pericytes as well as in neurons and astrocytes may mediate the neuroprotective role of PDGF-B. The aims of this study were to elucidate the roles of PDGFRβ signaling(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), one of the tumor necrosis factor family proteins, is an important proinflammatory cytokine and appears to play a putative role in the inflammatory process of atherosclerosis. Recent genetic studies have suggested that variations in the gene encoding LTA, which affect its expression and biological function, may(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE During cerebral ischemia, both hypoxia and hypercapnia appear to produce marked dilatation of the cerebral arteries. Hypercapnia and hypoxia may be accompanied by extracellular and intracellular acidosis, which is another potent dilator of cerebral arteries. However, the precise mechanism by which acidosis produces dilatation of the(More)
A 55-year-old man presented with generalized seizures and postictal left hemiparesis. Computed tomography scanning of his head showed a low density area in the right frontal lobe. Cerebral angiography demonstrated a partial defect in the superior sagittal sinus and cortical veins, indicating the presence of cerebral venous thrombosis. He had bleeding from a(More)