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Based on variation in nucleotide sequence within restricted regions in the putative C (core) gene of hepatitis C virus (HCV), four groups of HCV have been postulated in a panel of 44 HCV isolates. They were provisionally designated types I, II, III and IV. A method for typing HCV was developed, depending on the amplification of a C gene sequence by(More)
The complete nucleotide sequences of the DNA of three hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes of subtype adw, cloned from plasma samples of asymptomatic carriers living in the mainland and Okinawa Prefecture of Japan and Indonesia were determined. All three comprised 3215 bp and differed in sequence by only 3.9 to 5.6%. When these isolates were compared with the(More)
The family Hepeviridae consists of positive-stranded RNA viruses that infect a wide range of mammalian species, as well as chickens and trout. A subset of these viruses infects humans and can cause a self-limiting acute hepatitis that may become chronic in immunosuppressed individuals. Current published descriptions of the taxonomical divisions within the(More)
We have identified four new hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates whose genomic RNA could be amplified by PCR using primers from the 5' untranslated region (UTR), but the RNA could not be detected with genotype I to IV (or types 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b respectively)-specific core region-derived primers. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the new isolates from(More)
Recently, putative viral agents responsible for human non-A to E hepatitis have been independently reported by two groups of investigators and designated GB virus C (GBV-C) and hepatitis G virus (HGV), respectively. The entire nucleotide sequences were determined for two viral genomes isolated from Japanese blood donors with GBV-C RNA. One of them (GT230)(More)
We previously proposed a model for detecting local image velocity on the magnocellular visual pathway (Kawakami & Okamoto (1996) Vision Research, 36, 117-147). The model detects visual motion in two stages using the hierarchical network that includes component and pattern cells in area MT. To validate the model, we predicted two types of bimodal direction(More)
We propose that five types of cell on the magnocellular pathway of the visual cortex constitute a function hierarchy for detecting local image motion. Lateral geniculate nucleus cells and two simple cell types analyse one-dimensional velocities perpendicular to oriented components within a moving stimulus. Combining these velocities, a group of complex(More)
Five isolates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA from patients with chronic liver disease in Nepal were not classifiable into the known genotypes I/1a, II/1b, III/2a, IV/2b or V/3a using PCR with type-specific primers deduced from the HCV core gene. Their nucleotide sequences were determined for the 5'-terminal 1.5 kilobases and 3'-terminal 1.2 kilobases,(More)
1. The action potential and the membrane current of the mouse oocyte were analysed by current-clamp and voltage-clamp techniques and they were compared with those of other animal oocytes. 2. The matured and unfertilized oocyte of the mouse in standard medium with 6 mM-K showed the resting potential of -23-1+/-2-9 mV. The resting potential was relatively(More)
The genomic RNA of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the plasma of volunteer blood donors was detected by using the polymerase chain reaction in a fraction of density 1.08 g/ml from sucrose density gradient equilibrium centrifugation. When the fraction was treated with the detergent NP40 and recentrifuged in sucrose, the HCV RNA banded at 1.25 g/ml. Assuming that(More)