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Among ten patients who contracted sporadic acute or fulminant hepatitis E between 2001 and 2002 in Hokkaido, Japan, nine (90 %) had a history of consuming grilled or undercooked pig liver 2-8 weeks before the disease onset. We tested packages of raw pig liver sold in grocery stores as food in Hokkaido for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA by(More)
Using PCR with primers derived from a non-coding region of the human TT virus (TTV) genome, the TTV sequence in serum samples obtained from pigs (Sus domesticus), dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis catus) was identified and the entire genomic sequence was determined for each representative isolate. Three TTV isolates (Sd-TTV31 from a pig, Cf-TTV10 from(More)
The family Hepeviridae consists of positive-stranded RNA viruses that infect a wide range of mammalian species, as well as chickens and trout. A subset of these viruses infects humans and can cause a self-limiting acute hepatitis that may become chronic in immunosuppressed individuals. Current published descriptions of the taxonomical divisions within the(More)
Ongoing subclinical infection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) has not been fully studied. In the present study, serum samples were collected from 6700 voluntary blood donors with an elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level of 61-476 IU/l at a Japanese Red Cross Blood Center, and were tested for the presence of IgG, IgM and IgA classes of antibodies to HEV(More)
1. Abstract Japanese longline (JPLL) operational catch and effort data for bigeye and yellowfin tuna were analyzed, in a collaboration between the Secretariat of the Pacific community (SPC) and the National Research Institute of Far Seas Fisheries (NRIFSF). The objectives were to a) improve understanding of the factors affecting catch rates, b) to develop,(More)
International standardization and coordination of the nomenclature of variants of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is increasingly needed as more is discovered about the scale of HCV-related liver disease and important biological and antigenic differences that exist between variants. A group of scientists expert in the field of HCV genetic variability, and those(More)
TT virus (TTV) was recovered from the sera of tupaias (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) by PCR using primers derived from the noncoding region of the human TTV genome, and its entire genomic sequence was determined. One tupaia TTV isolate (Tbc-TTV14) consisted of only 2199 nucleotides (nt) and had three open reading frames (ORFs), spanning 1506 nt (ORF1), 177 nt(More)
The nomenclature of hepatitis E virus (HEV) subtypes is inconsistent and makes comparison of different studies problematic. We have provided a table of proposed complete genome reference sequences for each subtype. The criteria for subtype assignment vary between different genotypes and methodologies, and so a conservative pragmatic approach has been(More)
We recently identified a novel human virus classifiable into a third group in the genus Anellovirus, tentatively designated torque teno midi virus (TTMDV), with a circular DNA genome of 3.2 kb and genomic organization resembling those of torque teno virus (TTV) (3.8 to 3.9 kb) and torque teno mini virus (TTMV) (2.8 to 2.9 kb). TTMDV was characterized by(More)