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Based on variation in nucleotide sequence within restricted regions in the putative C (core) gene of hepatitis C virus (HCV), four groups of HCV have been postulated in a panel of 44 HCV isolates. They were provisionally designated types I, II, III and IV. A method for typing HCV was developed, depending on the amplification of a C gene sequence by(More)
We generated germ line-transmitting transgenic zebrafish that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the cranial motor neurons. This was accomplished by fusing GFP sequences to Islet-1 promoter/enhancer sequences that were sufficient for neural-specific expression. The expression of GFP by the motor neurons in the transgenic fish enabled visualization(More)
1. Abstract Japanese longline (JPLL) operational catch and effort data for bigeye and yellowfin tuna were analyzed, in a collaboration between the Secretariat of the Pacific community (SPC) and the National Research Institute of Far Seas Fisheries (NRIFSF). The objectives were to a) improve understanding of the factors affecting catch rates, b) to develop,(More)
The complete nucleotide sequences of the DNA of three hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes of subtype adw, cloned from plasma samples of asymptomatic carriers living in the mainland and Okinawa Prefecture of Japan and Indonesia were determined. All three comprised 3215 bp and differed in sequence by only 3.9 to 5.6%. When these isolates were compared with the(More)
The family Hepeviridae consists of positive-stranded RNA viruses that infect a wide range of mammalian species, as well as chickens and trout. A subset of these viruses infects humans and can cause a self-limiting acute hepatitis that may become chronic in immunosuppressed individuals. Current published descriptions of the taxonomical divisions within the(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates from 126 hepatitis patients in Jakarta, Indonesia were genotyped by PCR with genotype-specific primers deduced from the HCV core gene. Fifty-five isolates (44%) were classified as genotype II/1b, 15 (12%) as 1c, 33 (26%) as III/2a, and 1 (1%) as V/3a, while the remaining 22 (17%) were not classifiable into any of the five(More)
We have identified four new hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates whose genomic RNA could be amplified by PCR using primers from the 5' untranslated region (UTR), but the RNA could not be detected with genotype I to IV (or types 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b respectively)-specific core region-derived primers. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the new isolates from(More)
We have proposed that hepatitis C virus should be classified into eleven genetic groups (types) which further divide into more than 80 genotypes (subtypes). However, only eight genetic groups (1-6, 10 and 11) have been defined on the basis of the full-length sequence. Hence, the entire nucleotide sequences of three HCV isolates in genetic groups 7-9 have(More)
Recently, putative viral agents responsible for human non-A to E hepatitis have been independently reported by two groups of investigators and designated GB virus C (GBV-C) and hepatitis G virus (HGV), respectively. The entire nucleotide sequences were determined for two viral genomes isolated from Japanese blood donors with GBV-C RNA. One of them (GT230)(More)
(1) The effects on the whole-cell carbachol-induced muscarinic cationic current (mIcat) of antibodies against the alpha-subunits of various G proteins, as well as the effect of a Gbetagamma subunit, were studied in single guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle cells voltage-clamped at -50 mV. Ionized intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca(2+)](i), was clamped at(More)