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The discovery that plants contain multiple calmodulin (CaM) isoforms of variable sequence identity to animal CaM suggested an additional level of sophistication in the intracellular role of calcium regulation in plants. Past research has focused on the ability of conserved or divergent plant CaM isoforms to activate both mammalian and plant protein targets.(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) is a prototypical Ca2+-sensor protein that can control many important biological functions by binding to hundreds of target proteins. To gain insight into the versatility of CaM-target recognition, we have analyzed the complex structures for many types of CaM-binding peptides and some target proteins. In particular, some recently reported(More)
We have determined the solution structure of calmodulin (CaM) from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (yCaM) in the apo state by using NMR spectroscopy. yCaM is 60% identical in its amino acid sequence with other CaMs, and exhibits its unique biological features. yCaM consists of two similar globular domains (N- and C-domain) containing three Ca(2+)-binding(More)
The vesicular neuroexocytosis process consists of two important steps: fusion of transmitter-loaded vesicles at release sites on the presynaptic nerve terminal membrane; followed by the release of transmitter molecules into the synaptic cleft. We previously reported that in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells, arachidonic acid (AA) release(More)
The calcium regulatory protein calmodulin (CaM) binds in a calcium-dependent manner to numerous target proteins. The calmodulin-binding domain (CaMBD) region of Nicotiana tabacum MAPK phosphatase has an amino acid sequence that does not resemble the CaMBD of any other known Ca(2+)-CaM-binding proteins. Using a unique fusion protein strategy, we have been(More)
Here we present a novel NMR method for the structure determination of calcium-calmodulin (Ca(2+)-CaM)-peptide complexes from a limited set of experimental restraints. A comparison of solved CaM-peptide structures reveals invariability in CaM's backbone conformation and a structural plasticity in CaM's domain orientation enabled by a flexible linker. Knowing(More)
Parietal cortex contributes to body representations by integrating visual and somatosensory inputs. Because mirror neurons in ventral premotor and parietal cortices represent visual images of others' actions on the intrinsic motor representation of the self, this matching system may play important roles in recognizing actions performed by others. However,(More)
The secondary structure of the manganese-stabilizing protein of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus in solution was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. Both methods showed a high proportion of disordered structure (40-43%) and a relatively small amount of beta-sheet (23-24%) and(More)
The intracellular calcium ion is one of the most important secondary messengers in eukaryotic cells. Ca(2+) signals are translated into physiological responses by EF-hand calcium-binding proteins such as calmodulin (CaM). Multiple CaM isoforms occur in plant cells, whereas only a single CaM protein is found in animals. Soybean CaM isoform 1 (sCaM1) shares(More)