Learn More
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H5N1 is currently widespread in Asia, Europe, and Africa, with 60% mortality in humans. In particular, since 2009 Egypt has unexpectedly had the highest number of human cases of H5N1 virus infection, with more than 50% of the cases worldwide, but the basis for this high incidence has not been elucidated. A(More)
Pandemic influenza viruses can emerge through continuous evolution and the acquisition of specific mutations or through reassortment. This study assessed the pandemic potential of H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry outbreaks occurring from July 2006 to September 2008 in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). We analyzed 29 viruses isolated from(More)
Avian influenza viruses preferentially recognize sialosugar chains terminating in sialic acid-alpha2,3-galactose (SAalpha2,3Gal), whereas human influenza viruses preferentially recognize SAalpha2,6Gal. A conversion to SAalpha2,6Gal specificity is believed to be one of the changes required for the introduction of new hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes to the human(More)
Hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS) is a recently identified genetic disorder characterized by hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with concomitant hyperammonemia. In patients with HHS, activating mutations in the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) gene have been identified. GDH is a key enzyme linking glutamate metabolism with the Krebs cycle and catalyzes(More)
BACKGROUND We recently identified two endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphisms, Glu298Asp and T-786-->C, which are independently associated with coronary spasm. eNOS gene intron 4b/a polymorphism is also reported to be involved in smoking-dependent coronary artery disease. The genetic linkage among these polymorphisms remains unknown.(More)
It is known that pigs acted as "mixing vessels" for genesis of a new reassortant influenza strain responsible for pandemic H1N1 2009. However, the host factors driving the evolution of a reassorted virus in pigs to 'jump species' resulting in a human outbreak remain unclear. N-glycans derived from the porcine respiratory tract were enzymatically released,(More)
UNLABELLED Influenza viruses of the H6 subtype have been isolated from wild and domestic aquatic and terrestrial avian species throughout the world since their first detection in a turkey in Massachusetts in 1965. Since 1997, H6 viruses with different neuraminidase (NA) subtypes have been detected frequently in the live poultry markets of southern China.(More)
In vitro effects of macrolide clarithromycin (CAM) on influenza A virus-infected cells were examined using plaque reduction assay by treating cells either before or after viral adsorption. The significant inhibitory effect on influenza virus infection was detected only when the cells were treated with CAM after viral adsorption. The predominant inhibitory(More)
UNLABELLED Increased detection of enterovirus 68 (EV68) among patients with acute respiratory infections has been reported from different parts of the world in the late 2000s since its first detection in pediatric patients with lower-respiratory-tract infections in 1962. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for this trend are still unknown. We(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza A viruses are capable of crossing the specific barrier between human beings and animals resulting in interspecies transmission. The important factor of potential infectivity of influenza A viruses is the suitability of the receptor binding site of the host and viruses. The affinities of avian and human influenza virus to bind with the(More)