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Highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H5N1 is currently widespread in Asia, Europe, and Africa, with 60% mortality in humans. In particular, since 2009 Egypt has unexpectedly had the highest number of human cases of H5N1 virus infection, with more than 50% of the cases worldwide, but the basis for this high incidence has not been elucidated. A(More)
It is known that pigs acted as "mixing vessels" for genesis of a new reassortant influenza strain responsible for pandemic H1N1 2009. However, the host factors driving the evolution of a reassorted virus in pigs to 'jump species' resulting in a human outbreak remain unclear. N-glycans derived from the porcine respiratory tract were enzymatically released,(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza virus attaches to sialic acid residues on the surface of host cells via the hemagglutinin (HA), a glycoprotein expressed on the viral envelope, and enters into the cytoplasm by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The viral genome is released and transported in to the nucleus, where transcription and replication take place. However, cellular(More)
In epithelial cells, miRNA-199a-5p/-3p and Brm, a catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF complex were previously shown to form a double-negative feedback loop through EGR1, by which human cancer cell lines tend to fall into either of the steady states, types 1 [miR-199a(-)/Brm(+)/EGR1(-)] and 2 [miR-199a(+)/Brm (-)/EGR1(+)]. We show here, that type 2 cells,(More)
UNLABELLED A change in viral hemagglutinin (HA) receptor binding specificity from α2,3- to α2,6-linked sialic acid is necessary for highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus subtype H5N1 to become pandemic. However, details of the human-adaptive change in the H5N1 virus remain unknown. Our database search of H5N1 clade 2.2.1 viruses circulating in Egypt(More)
Glycans exhibit enormous structural diversity in nature and are of particular importance for self-cell survival and are often targeted by microbes. In this study, N-glycans (374.9 pmol/mg in dry delipidated weight) were enzymatical-ly released from bovine milk whey protein concentrate, and they were isolated and analyzed by a two-dimensional HPLC mapping(More)
Influenza A virus (IAV) recognizes two types of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) by galactose (Gal) linkages, Neu5Acα2,3Gal and Neu5Acα2,6Gal. Avian IAV preferentially binds to Neu5Acα2,3Gal linkage, while human IAV preferentially binds to Neu5Acα2,6Gal linkage, as a virus receptor. Shift in receptor binding specificity of avian IAV from Neu5Acα2,3Gal(More)
Whereas miR-200 family is known to be involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial biological process observed in normal and pathological contexts, it has been largely unclear how far the functional levels of these tiny RNAs alone can propagate the molecular events to accomplish this process within several days. By developing a(More)
Nano-carbon materials are promising canidates for applications in high performance devices, including highly sensitive biosensors. We have developed a self-alignment process for nano-carbon field effect transistors (FETs), using a carbon nanowall (CNW)—a nano-carbon materials—to fabricate CNW-FETs. We measured the pH dependence of the device properties. The(More)