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Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy have extended the spatial resolution to the nanometer scale. Here, we report an engineered photoconvertible fluorescent protein (pcFP) variant, designated as mMaple, that is suited for use in multiple conventional and super-resolution imaging modalities, specifically, widefield and confocal microscopy, structured(More)
Two of the most powerful implementations of fluorescent protein (FP) technology are "highlighters", which can be converted from nonfluorescent to fluorescent or from one color to another by illumination, and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) indicators. Combining the properties of both of these FP classes into a single construct would produce a highlightable Ca(2+)(More)
The use of green-to-red photoconvertible fluorescent proteins (FPs) enables researchers to highlight a subcellular population of a fusion protein of interest and to image its dynamics in live cells. In an effort to enrich the arsenal of photoconvertible FPs and to overcome the limitations imposed by the oligomeric structure of natural photoconvertible FPs,(More)
As one of the principal cytoplasmic second messengers, the calcium ion (Ca(2+)) is central to a variety of intracellular signal transduction pathways. Accordingly, there is a sustained interest in methods for spatially- and temporally resolved imaging of the concentration of Ca(2+) in live cells using noninvasive methods such as genetically encoded(More)
Protein engineering has created a palette of monomeric fluorescent proteins (FPs), but there remains an ~30 nm spectral gap between the most red-shifted useful Aequorea victoria green FP (GFP) variants and the most blue-shifted useful Discosoma sp. red FP (RFP) variants. To fill this gap, we have engineered a monomeric version of the yellow FP (YFP) from(More)
Fluorescent protein (FP)-based biosensors have revolutionized the ability of researchers to monitor enzyme activities in live cells. While the basic design principles for FP-based biosensors are well established, first-generation biosensor constructs typically suffer from relatively low fluorescence responses that limit their general applicability. The(More)
To expand the range of experiments that are accessible with optogenetics, we developed a photocleavable protein (PhoCl) that spontaneously dissociates into two fragments after violet-light-induced cleavage of a specific bond in the protein backbone. We demonstrated that PhoCl can be used to engineer light-activatable Cre recombinase, Gal4 transcription(More)
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