Himadri S Gupta

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In biomineralized tissues such as bone, the recurring structural motif at the supramolecular level is an anisotropic stiff inorganic component reinforcing the soft organic matrix. The high toughness and defect tolerance of natural biomineralized composites is believed to arise from these nanometer scale structural motifs. Specifically, load transfer in bone(More)
The degree of mineralization of bone matrix is an important factor in determining the mechanical competence of bone. The remodeling and modeling activities of bone cells together with the time course of mineralization of newly formed bone matrix generate a characteristic bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD). In this study we investigated the(More)
Deformation mechanisms in bone matrix at the nanoscale control its exceptional mechanical properties, but the detailed nature of these processes is as yet unknown. In situ tensile testing with synchrotron X-ray scattering allowed us to study directly and quantitatively the deformation mechanisms at the nanometer level. We find that bone deformation is not(More)
The secondary osteon - a fundamental building block in compact bone - is a multilayered cylindrical structure of mineralized collagen fibrils arranged around a blood vessel. Functionally, the osteon must be adapted to the in vivo mechanical stresses in bone at the level of its microstructure. However, questions remain about the precise mechanism by which(More)
The biomechanical properties of the zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC) in articulating joints are of clinical relevance due to the role ZCC plays in load transfer from cartilage to bone. To determine the micron-level mechanical properties and their correlation to mineral concentration in the ZCC, we combined nanoindentation (for micrometer level stiffness(More)
Tendon is a hydrated multi-level fibre composite, in which time-dependent behaviour is well established. Studies indicate significant stress relaxation, considered important for optimising tissue stiffness. However, whilst this behaviour is well documented, the mechanisms associated with the response are largely unknown. This study investigates the(More)
The high stiffness and toughness of biomineralized tissues are related to the material deformation mechanisms at different levels of organization, from trabeculae and osteons at the micrometer level to the mineralized collagen fibrils at the nanometer length scale. Quantitatively little is known about the sub-micrometer deformation mechanisms under applied(More)
The mechanical performance of bone is of paramount importance for the quality of life we experience. The structural integrity of bone, its hierarchical structure, organisation and its physicochemical constitution, all influence its ability to withstand loads, such as those seen occasionally in everyday life loading scenarios, which are either above the(More)
The byssal threads of the California mussel, Mytilus californianus, are highly hysteretic, elastomeric fibers that collectively perform a holdfast function in wave-swept rocky seashore habitats. Following cyclic loading past the mechanical yield point, threads exhibit a damage-dependent reduction in mechanical performance. However, the distal portion of the(More)
Bone diseases such as rickets and osteoporosis cause significant reduction in bone quantity and quality, which leads to mechanical abnormalities. However, the precise ultrastructural mechanism by which altered bone quality affects mechanical properties is not clearly understood. Here we demonstrate the functional link between altered bone quality (reduced(More)