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The NF-κB signaling pathway is central to the innate and adaptive immune responses. Upon their detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, Toll-like receptors on the cell surface initiate signal transduction and activate the NF-κB pathway, leading to the production of a wide array of inflammatory cytokines, in attempt to eradicate the invaders. As(More)
Friend of GATA-1 (FOG-1) is a binding partner of GATA-1, a zinc finger transcription factor with crucial roles in erythroid, megakaryocytic, and mast-cell differentiation. FOG-1 is indispensable for the function of GATA-1 during erythro/megakaryopoiesis, but FOG-1 is not expressed in mast cells. Here, we analyzed the role of FOG-1 in mast-cell(More)
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes bloody diarrhoea and other severe symptoms such as haemorrhagic uraemic syndrome. The expression of virulence genes on the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE) and associated genes is regulated by a variety of factors, including transcriptional regulators and environmental signals. Butyrate, one of the(More)
Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) are related strains capable of inducing severe gastrointestinal disease. For optimal infection, these pathogens actively modulate cellular functions through the deployment of effector proteins in a type three secretion system (T3SS)-dependent manner. In response to enteric pathogen(More)
Ler, a homolog of H-NS in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), plays a critical role in the expression of virulence genes encoded by the pathogenic island, locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Although Ler acts as an antisilencer of multiple LEE operons by alleviating H-NS-mediated silencing, it represses its own expression from two LEE1 P1 promoters,(More)
Innate immunity is an essential component in the protection of a host against pathogens. Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively) are known to modulate the innate immune responses of infected cells. The interference is dependent on their type III secretion system (T3SS) and T3SS-dependent effector proteins.(More)
GATA-2 is a zinc finger transcription factor essential for differentiation of immature hematopoietic cells. We analyzed the function of GATA-2 by a combined method of tetracycline-dependent conditional gene expression and in vitro hematopoietic differentiation from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells using OP9 stroma cells (OP9 system). In the presence of(More)
Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Medical School and Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences; Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Japan Running title: EFFECTS OF FOG-1 ON MAST CELL DIFFERENTIATION Scientific section designations: HEMATOPOIESIS Address correspondence to(More)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the innate immune system. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a food-borne pathogen causing serious diarrheal diseases, must overcome attack by AMPs. Here, we show that resistance of EHEC against human cathelicidin LL-37, a primary AMP, was enhanced by butyrate, which has been shown to act as(More)
Enteric pathogens, such as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7, encounter varying concentrations of iron during their life cycle. In the gastrointestinal tract, the amount of available free iron is limited because of absorption by host factors. EHEC and other enteric pathogens have developed sophisticated iron-responsive systems to utilize limited iron(More)