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A small Plinian eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia ejected 3.5 x 10(10) kilograms of mixed dacite and andesite tephra on 13 November 1985, with a maximum column height of 31 kilometers above sea level. Small pyroclastic flows and surges, generated during the initial stage of the eruption, caused surface melting of approximately 10% of the(More)
Desirable and undesirable effects of a drug are related to its concentration at various sites of actions. For many psychotropic drugs, it has been shown that drug concentration in brain correlates with concentration in blood. The latter is also an available estimate of clearance and bioavailability. Its monitoring enables identification of multiple factors(More)
Geologic and radiometric-age data indicate that El Chichón was frequently and violently active during the Holocene, including eruptive episodes about 600, 1250, and 1700 years ago and several undated, older eruptions. These episodes, involving explosive eruptions of sulfur-rich magma and associated dome-growth processes, were apparently separated by(More)
Volcanic eruptions in Latin America have claimed about 61,000 lives since 1600 A.D. and the region's volcanoes are responsible for about a quarter of the world's fatalities from this type of hazard. Nearly all loss of life from volcanism in Latin America is due to pyroclastic surges, pyroclastic flows and lahars or volcanic mudflows. Lahars generated during(More)
Rapid response by earth, atmospheric, and space scientists made possible diverse observations during the explosive phase of the 1979 eruption of Soufriere Volcano. The 11 reports that follow indicate that, with the availability of appropriate personnel, equipment, and logistical support, a significant body of geophysical data can be gathered on short notice(More)
The Soufrière volcano in St. Vincent erupted from October 1971 to March 1972, as 80 x 10(6) m(3) of basaltic andesite lava was quietly extruded inside the mile-wide crater. The eruption was largely subaqueous, taking place in the 180-m-deep crater lake, and resulted in the emergence of a steep-sided island. The mild character of the eruption and the absence(More)
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