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We conducted a prospective epidemiological study of possible enteric disease transmission by aerosolized pathogens from sprinkler irrigation of partially treated wastewater in 20 kibbutzim (collective agricultural settlements) in Israel between March 1981 and February 1982. Medical data were collected from the patients' files and daily logs of physicians(More)
This paper presents a preliminary attempt at obtaining an order-of-magnitude estimate of the global burden of disease (GBD) of human infectious diseases associated with swimming/bathing in coastal waters polluted by wastewater, and eating raw or lightly steamed filter-feeding shellfish harvested from such waters. Such diseases will be termed(More)
The incidence of enteric communicable diseases in 77 kibbutzim (agricultural communal settlements) practicing wastewater spray irrigation with partially treated nondisinfected oxidation pond effluent is compared with that in 130 kibbutzim practicing no form of wastewater irrigation. The incidence of shigellosis, salmonellosis, typhoid fever, and infectious(More)
The presence of legionellae was investigated over 2 years in various types of water in Israel. Potable water, fish ponds, oxidation ponds and surface water were sampled on a monthly basis. Legionellae were not isolated during the cold months of the year (November to April), but were continually isolated during the rest of the year (May to October). Nineteen(More)
An analysis of morbidity was made in 11 kibbutzim (cooperative agricultural settlements), with a total population of 3,040, that had switched from nonwastewater to wastewater sprinkler irrigation or vice versa. Generally, partially treated stabilization pond effluent of poor microbial quality was used for irrigation. Vegetables or salad crops were not(More)
The public health aspects of the use of wastewater in agriculture and the effects of the drip irrigation method on the contamination of vegetables were studied. The method used was to simulate enteric microorganisms' dissemination by contaminated irrigation water in the field. The vegetables were irrigated with an effluent inoculated with a high titer of(More)