Hilleke E. Hulshoff Pol

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OBJECTIVE So far, there have been no attempts to integrate the growing number of all brain volumetric magnetic resonance imaging studies in depression. In this comprehensive meta-analysis the magnitude and extent of brain volume differences between 2,418 patients with major depressive disorder and 1,974 healthy individuals from 64 studies was determined. (More)
The degree to which individual variation in brain structure in humans is genetically or environmentally determined is as yet not well understood. We studied the brains of 54 monozygotic (33 male, 21 female) and 58 dizygotic (17 male, 20 female, 21 opposite sex) pairs of twins and 34 of their full siblings (19 male, 15 female) by means of high resolution(More)
Variation in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume of the adult human brain is primarily genetically determined. Moreover, total brain volume is positively correlated with general intelligence, and both share a common genetic origin. However, although genetic effects on morphology of specific GM areas in the brain have been studied, the heritability(More)
Puberty is an important period during development hallmarked by increases in sex steroid levels. Human neuroimaging studies have consistently reported that in typically developing pubertal children, cortical and subcortical gray matter is decreasing, whereas white matter increases well into adulthood. From animal studies it has become clear that sex(More)
Our brain is a complex network in which information is continuously processed and transported between spatially distributed but functionally linked regions. Recent studies have shown that the functional connections of the brain network are organized in a highly efficient small-world manner, indicating a high level of local neighborhood clustering, together(More)
During rest, multiple cortical brain regions are functionally linked forming resting-state networks. This high level of functional connectivity within resting-state networks suggests the existence of direct neuroanatomical connections between these functionally linked brain regions to facilitate the ongoing interregional neuronal communication. White matter(More)
Brain regions are not independent. They are interconnected by white matter tracts, together forming one integrative complex network. The topology of this network is crucial for efficient information integration between brain regions. Here, we demonstrate that schizophrenia involves an aberrant topology of the structural infrastructure of the brain network.(More)
The default mode network is a functionally connected network of brain regions that show highly synchronized intrinsic neuronal activation during rest. However, less is known about the structural connections of this network, which could play an important role in the observed functional connectivity patterns. In this study, we examined the microstructural(More)
BACKGROUND Functional brain imaging studies have indicated that distinct anatomical brain regions can show coherent spontaneous neuronal activity during rest. Regions that show such correlated behavior are said to form resting-state networks (RSNs). RSNs have been investigated using seed-dependent functional connectivity maps and by using a number of(More)
BACKGROUND The view that schizophrenia is a brain disease particularly involving decrements in gray matter is supported by findings from many imaging studies. However, it is unknown whether the (progressive) loss of tissue affects the brain globally or whether tissue loss is more prominent in some areas than in others. METHODS Magnetic resonance whole(More)