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The objective of the present work was to determine current levels and recent nationwide trends in radiological examination frequency, as well as to update corresponding collective effective dose estimates. Examination frequencies were obtained from radiology management systems at all hospitals and private radiology enterprises across Norway in terms of(More)
The purpose of the study was to develop a methodology that allowed quantitative assessment of image quality in CT and its relationship to dose. An anthropomorphic phantom was designed for use in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies of the detectability of liver lesions with CT. The lesions were simulated by different mixtures of glycerol and(More)
The increasing worldwide use of paediatric computed tomography (CT) has led to increasing concerns regarding the subsequent effects of exposure to radiation. In response to this concern, the international EPI-CT project was developed to study the risk of cancer in a large multi-country cohort. In radiation epidemiology, accurate estimates of organ-specific(More)
In computer tomography (CT) diagnostics, the measured Hounsfield units (HU) are used to characterize tissue and are in that respect compared to nominal HU values found in the radiological literature. Quality assurance (QA) phantoms are commercially available with a variety of tissue substitutes and materials to test the HU values in CT. It is however(More)
The aim of this study was to compare mean glandular dose (MGD) in all full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and screen film mammography (SFM) systems used in a national mammography screening program. MGD from 31 screening units (7 FFDM and 24 SFM), based on an average of 50 women at each screening unit, representing 12 X-ray models (6 FFDM and 6 SFM) from(More)
BACKGROUND Children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus are still followed routinely with frequent head CT scans. OBJECTIVE To estimate the effective dose, brain and lens doses from these examinations during childhood, and to assess dose variation per examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS All children born between 1983 and 1995 and treated for hydrocephalus(More)
BACKGROUND The main aim of mammographic screening is to reduce the mortality from breast cancer. However, use of ionizing radiation is considered a potential harm due to the possible risk of inducing cancer in healthy women. PURPOSE To estimate the potential number of radiation-induced breast cancers, radiation-induced breast cancer deaths, and lives(More)
The European Commission (EC) funded project Dose Datamed 2 (DDM2) had two objectives: to collect available data on patient doses from the radiodiagnostic procedures (X-ray and nuclear medicine) in Europe, and to facilitate the implementation of the Radiation Protection 154 Guidelines (RP154). Besides the collection of frequency and dose data, two(More)
Population doses from radiodiagnostic (X-ray and nuclear medicine) procedures in Europe were estimated based on data collected from 36 European countries. For X-ray procedures in EU and EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein) the collective effective dose is 547,500 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries(More)
Computed tomography (CT) has great clinical utility and its usage has increased dramatically over the years. Concerns have been raised, however, about health impacts of ionising radiation exposure from CTs, particularly in children, who have a higher risk for some radiation induced diseases. Direct estimation of the health impact of these exposures is(More)