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In the standard Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), participants have to choose repeatedly from four options. Each option is characterized by a constant gain, and by the frequency and amount of a probabilistic loss. Crone and van der Molen (2004) reported that school-aged children and even adolescents show marked deficits in IGT performance. In this study, we have(More)
OBJECTIVE To find predictors of cognitive decline and quality of life 1 year after bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS A total of 105 patients were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment before and 12 months after surgery. A control group of 40 PD patients was(More)
Scores on cognitive tasks used in intelligence tests correlate positively with each other, that is, they display a positive manifold of correlations. The positive manifold is often explained by positing a dominant latent variable, the g factor, associated with a single quantitative cognitive or biological process or capacity. In this article, a new(More)
BACKGROUND The ability to inhibit motor responses, as assessed by the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), is impaired in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the between-study variation in effect sizes is large. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this variability can be explained by(More)
Estimated generalized least squares (EGLS) electromagnetic source analysis is used to downweight noisy and correlated data. Standard EGLS requires many trials to accurately estimate the noise covariances and, thus, the source parameters. Alternatively, the noise covariances can be modeled parametrically. Only the parameters of the model describing the noise(More)
Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules-sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such decision-making rules.(More)
Counterfactual emotions, such as regret and relief, are considered important in daily-life choice behaviour, learning and emotion regulation. A prominent question is from which age counterfactual emotions develop. In this study, we compared a more "traditional" analysis with a latent-class analysis (LCA) that allows the study of individual differences and a(More)
A method is described to derive source and conductivity estimates in a simultaneous MEG and EEG source analysis. In addition the covariance matrix of the estimates is derived. Simulation studies with a concentric spheres model and a more realistic boundary element model indicate that this method has several advantages, even if only a few EEG sensors are(More)
The source of an event related brain potential (ERP) is estimated from multivariate measurements of this ERP on the head under several mathematical and physical constraints on the parameters of the source model. We will discuss statistical aspects of standard methods to estimate these parameters and their confidence intervals. In addition new principled(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormal levels of biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and atrophy of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are being used increasingly to diagnose early Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the claim that these biomarkers can detect preclinical AD before behavioural (i.e. memory) symptoms arise. METHOD(More)