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In the standard Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), participants have to choose repeatedly from four options. Each option is characterized by a constant gain, and by the frequency and amount of a probabilistic loss. Crone and van der Molen (2004) reported that school-aged children and even adolescents show marked deficits in IGT performance. In this study, we have(More)
Scores on cognitive tasks used in intelligence tests correlate positively with each other, that is, they display a positive manifold of correlations. The positive manifold is often explained by positing a dominant latent variable, the g factor, associated with a single quantitative cognitive or biological process or capacity. In this article, a new(More)
BACKGROUND The ability to inhibit motor responses, as assessed by the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), is impaired in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the between-study variation in effect sizes is large. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this variability can be explained by(More)
Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules-sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such decision-making rules.(More)
An important issue in the analysis of fMRI is how to account for the spatial smoothness of activated regions. In this article a method is proposed to accomplish this by modeling activated regions with Gaussian shapes. Hypothesis tests on the location, spatial extent, and amplitude of these regions are performed instead of hypothesis tests of individual(More)
A method is described to incorporate the spatiotemporal noise covariance matrix into a spatiotemporal source analysis. The essential feature is that the estimation problem is split into two parts. First, a model is fitted to the observed noise covariance matrix. This model is a Kronecker product of a spatial and a temporal matrix. The spatial matrix models(More)
In electromagnetic source analysis, it is necessary to determine how many sources are required to describe the electroencephalogram or magnetoencephalogram adequately. Model selection procedures (MSPs) or goodness of fit procedures give an estimate of the required number of sources. Existing and new MSPs are evaluated in different source and noise settings:(More)
The general spatiotemporal covariance matrix of the background noise in MEG/EEG signals is huge. To reduce the dimensionality of this matrix it is modeled as a Kronecker product of a spatial and a temporal covariance matrix. When the number of time samples is larger than, say, J = 500, the iterative Maximum Likelihood estimation of these two matrices is(More)
Adolescents demonstrate impaired decision-making in emotionally arousing situations, yet they appear to exhibit relatively mature decision-making skills in predominantly cognitive, low-arousal situations. In this study we compared adolescents' (13-15 years) performance on matched affective and cognitive decision-making tasks, in order to determine (1) their(More)