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In the standard Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), participants have to choose repeatedly from four options. Each option is characterized by a constant gain, and by the frequency and amount of a probabilistic loss. Crone and van der Molen (2004) reported that school-aged children and even adolescents show marked deficits in IGT performance. In this study, we have(More)
OBJECTIVE To find predictors of cognitive decline and quality of life 1 year after bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS A total of 105 patients were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment before and 12 months after surgery. A control group of 40 PD patients was(More)
Scores on cognitive tasks used in intelligence tests correlate positively with each other, that is, they display a positive manifold of correlations. The positive manifold is often explained by positing a dominant latent variable, the g factor, associated with a single quantitative cognitive or biological process or capacity. In this article, a new(More)
BACKGROUND The ability to inhibit motor responses, as assessed by the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), is impaired in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the between-study variation in effect sizes is large. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this variability can be explained by(More)
The source of an event related brain potential (ERP) is estimated from multivariate measurements of this ERP on the head under several mathematical and physical constraints on the parameters of the source model. We will discuss statistical aspects of standard methods to estimate these parameters and their confidence intervals. In addition new principled(More)
Estimated generalized least squares (EGLS) electromagnetic source analysis is used to downweight noisy and correlated data. Standard EGLS requires many trials to accurately estimate the noise covariances and, thus, the source parameters. Alternatively, the noise covariances can be modeled parametrically. Only the parameters of the model describing the noise(More)
Random effects meta-regression is a technique to synthesize results of multiple studies. It allows for a test of an overall effect, as well as for tests of effects of study characteristics, that is, (discrete or continuous) moderator effects. We describe various procedures to test moderator effects: the z, t, likelihood ratio (LR), Bartlett-corrected LR(More)
The general spatiotemporal covariance matrix of the background noise in MEG/EEG signals is huge. To reduce the dimensionality of this matrix it is modeled as a Kronecker product of a spatial and a temporal covariance matrix. When the number of time samples is larger than, say, J = 500, the iterative Maximum Likelihood estimation of these two matrices is(More)
Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules-sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such decision-making rules.(More)