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BACKGROUND Abnormalities in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices are implicated in disturbances of attention, cognition, and impulse regulation in bipolar disorder. Acute episodes have been associated with dysfunction in these brain regions, and more enduring trait-related dysfunction has been implicated by volumetric and cellular abnormalities in(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated whether the functional abnormalities in prefrontal systems observed in adult bipolar disorder are manifested in adolescents with this illness. METHOD Ten adolescents with bipolar disorder and 10 healthy comparison subjects participated in a color-naming Stroop task during event-related functional magnetic resonance(More)
The ability to generate appropriate responses in social situations often requires the integration of emotional information conveyed through facial expressions with ongoing cognitive processes. Neuroimaging studies have begun to address how cognitive and emotional neural systems interact, but most of these studies have used emotional oddball stimuli as(More)
BACKGROUND The purported functions of medial temporal lobe structures suggest their involvement in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Previous reports of abnormalities in the volume of the amygdala and hippocampus in patients with BD have been inconsistent in their findings and limited to adult samples. Appreciation of whether volumetric(More)
OBJECTIVE Abnormalities in the morphology and function of two gray matter structures central to emotional processing, the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and amygdala, have consistently been reported in bipolar disorder (BD). Evidence implicates abnormalities in their connectivity in BD. This study investigates the potential disruptions in(More)
BACKGROUND Disturbed interpersonal relations and emotional dysregulation are fundamental aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The amygdala plays important roles in modulating vigilance and generating negative emotional states and is often abnormally reactive in disorders of mood and emotion. The aim of this study was to assess amygdala(More)
High resolution magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry were used to compare regional gray matter volumes between 14 medication-naïve female participants with a first episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) and 13 female healthy comparison participants (HC). Volumes of bilateral ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and right amygdala(More)
Glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) systems are emerging as targets for development of medications for mood disorders. There is increasing preclinical and clinical evidence that antidepressant drugs directly or indirectly reduce N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor function. Drugs that reduce glutamatergic activity or glutamate receptor-related(More)
OBJECTIVE Function of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex has been implicated in impulse control. The authors used the Stroop paradigm to test attention and response inhibition during the presentation of congruent and incongruent stimuli in male pathological gamblers and a group of comparison subjects. METHOD Event-related functional magnetic resonance(More)
BACKGROUND Convergent evidence implicates white matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder. The cingulum is an important candidate structure for study in bipolar disorder as it provides substantial white matter connections within the corticolimbic neural system that subserves emotional regulation involved in the disorder. AIMS To test the hypothesis that(More)