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The insulin promoter binds a number of tissue-specific and ubiquitous transcription factors. Of these, the homoeodomain protein PDX-1 (pancreatic duodenal homeobox factor-1), the basic leucine zipper protein MafA and the basic helix-loop-helix heterodimer E47/BETA2 (beta-cell E box transactivator 2; referred to here as beta2) bind to important regulatory(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells represent a possible source of islet tissue for the treatment of diabetes. Achieving this goal will require a detailed understanding of how the transcription factor cascade initiated by the homeodomain transcription factor Pdx1 culminates in pancreatic beta-cell development. Here we describe a genetic approach that enables fine(More)
Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI) is a neonatal disease characterized by dysregulation of insulin secretion accompanied by profound hypoglycemia. We have discovered that islet cells, isolated from the pancreas of a PHHI patient, proliferate in culture while maintaining a beta cell-like phenotype. The PHHI-derived cell line (NES2Y)(More)
Because of the lack of tissue available for islet transplantation, new sources of β-cells have been sought for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the human exocrine-enriched fraction from the islet isolation procedure could be reprogrammed to provide additional islet tissue for transplantation. The(More)
Using MIN6 beta-cells and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, the chronological sequence of binding of MafA, E47/beta2 and PDX-1 to the insulin promoter in living beta-cells were investigated. All four factors were shown to bind to the mouse insulin 2 promoter in a cyclical manner with a periodicity of approximately 10-15 min. The cyclical binding(More)
Tissue somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) consists of a number of molecular species including the cyclic tetradecapeptide or SRIF, an N-terminally extended form of SRIF termed somatostatin-28, as well as larger precursor peptides. The function and nature of circulating SLI is not well understood. In this report, we describe techniques for the(More)
The objective of these studies was to evaluate human insulin gene expression following intramuscular plasmid injection in non-diabetic rats as a potential approach to gene therapy for diabetes mellitus avoiding the need for immunosuppression. A wild-type human preproinsulin construct and a mutant construct in which PC2/PC3 sites were engineered to form(More)
An engineered zinc finger protein (eZFP) was isolated from a library based on its ability to activate expression of the endogenous insulin gene in HEK-293 cells. Using a panel of insulin promoter constructs, the eZFP was shown to act through the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) region located 365 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site.(More)
Persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia of infancy (PHHI), or nesidioblastosis, is a rare disorder which may be familial or sporadic, and which is characterized by unregulated secretion of insulin and profound hypoglycaemia in the neonate. The defect has been linked in some patients to mutations in the sulphonyl urea receptor gene (SUR). The present(More)
The AR42J-B13 rat pancreatic acinar cell line was used to identify pancreatic transcription factors and exogenous growth factors (GFs) that might facilitate the reprogramming of exocrine cells into islets. Adenoviruses were used to induce exogenous expression of the pancreatic transcription factors (TFs) Pdx1, MafA, Ngn3 and Pax4. Individually Pdx1, MafA(More)