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West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging flavivirus capable of infecting the central nervous system (CNS) and mediating neuronal cell death and tissue destruction. The processes that promote inflammation and encephalitis within the CNS are important for control of WNV disease but, how inflammatory signaling pathways operate to control CNS infection is not(More)
The structural maintenance of chromosome 5/6 complex (Smc5/6) is a restriction factor that represses hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription. HBV counters this restriction by expressing HBV X protein (HBx), which targets Smc5/6 for degradation. However, the mechanism by which Smc5/6 suppresses HBV transcription and how HBx is initially expressed is not known.(More)
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver disease. Liver inflammation underlies infection-induced fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver cancer but the processes that promote hepatic inflammation by HCV are not defined. We provide a systems biology analysis with multiple lines of evidence to indicate that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production(More)
Many viruses induce type I interferon responses by activating cytoplasmic RNA sensors, including the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). Although two members of the RLR family, RIG-I and MDA5, have been implicated in host control of virus infection, the relative role of each RLR in restricting pathogenesis in vivo remains unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated(More)
The RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signal innate immune defenses upon RNA virus infection, but their roles in adaptive immunity have not been clearly defined. Here, we showed that the RLR LGP2 was not essential for induction of innate immune defenses, but rather was required for controlling antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell survival and fitness during peripheral(More)
Multiple innate signals regulate the genesis of effector and memory CD8+ T cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the innate cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta regulate distinct aspects of effector and memory human CD8+ T-cell differentiation. IL-12 exclusively promoted the development of IFN-gamma- and tumor necrosis factor(More)
T helper 2 cells regulate inflammatory responses to helminth infections while also mediating pathological processes of asthma and allergy. IL-4 promotes Th2 development by inducing the expression of the GATA3 transcription factor, and the Th2 phenotype is stabilized by a GATA3-dependent autoregulatory loop. In this study, we found that type I IFN(More)
IL-2 is a hallmark cytokine secreted by central memory CD4(+) T cells (T(CM)). Although naive cells rapidly secrete IL-2 in response to Ag stimulation, IL-12 inhibits IL-2 secretion in daughter cells as they differentiate into Th1 cells. In this study, we uncover a unique role for IFN-alpha in regulating IL-2 secretion by human T(CM) cells. IFN-alpha(More)
The actions of the RIG-I like receptor (RLR) and type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathways are essential for a protective innate immune response against the emerging flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV). In mice lacking RLR or IFN signaling pathways, WNV exhibits enhanced tissue tropism, indicating that specific host factors of innate immune defense restrict(More)
CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes play a major role in defense against intracellular pathogens, and their functions are specified by antigen recognition and innate cytokines. IL-12 and IFN-α/β are potent "signal 3" cytokines that are involved in both effector and memory cell development. Although the majority of effector cells are eliminated as inflammation(More)