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Autophagy, a cellular process for organelle and protein turnover, regulates innate immune responses. Here we demonstrate that depletion of the autophagic proteins LC3B and beclin 1 enhanced the activation of caspase-1 and secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Depletion of autophagic proteins promoted the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating disease caused by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), which involves airway obstruction and alveolar loss (i.e., emphysema). The mechanisms of COPD pathogenesis remain unclear. Our previous studies demonstrated elevated autophagy in human COPD lung, and as a cellular and tissue response to(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) exert important nonimmune functions in lung homeostasis. TLR4 deficiency promotes pulmonary emphysema. We examined the role of TLR4 in regulating cigarette smoke (CS)-induced autophagy, apoptosis, and emphysema. Lung tissue was obtained from chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) patients. C3H/HeJ (Tlr4-mutated) mice and(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) involves aberrant airway inflammatory responses to cigarette smoke (CS) that are associated with epithelial cell dysfunction, cilia shortening, and mucociliary clearance disruption. Exposure to CS reduced cilia length and induced autophagy in vivo and in differentiated mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTECs).(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) involves aberrant airway inflammatory responses to cigarette smoke (CS) associated with respiratory epithelial cell cilia shortening and impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC). The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms for CS-associated cilia shortening have remained incompletely understood. We have(More)
Genetic studies have shown that the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1-TSC2-mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and the Hippo-Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) pathways are master regulators of organ size, which are often involved in tumorigenesis. The crosstalk between these signal transduction pathways in coordinating environmental cues, such as nutritional(More)
Pulmonary epithelial cells can be isolated from the respiratory tract of mice and cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI) as a model of differentiated respiratory epithelium. A protocol is described for isolating and exposing these cells to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS), in order to study epithelial cell responses to CS exposure. The protocol consists of(More)
Autophagy, a cellular program for organelle and protein turnover, represents primarily a cell survival mechanism. However, the role of autophagy in the regulation of apoptosis remains unclear. We have observed increases in morphological and biochemical indicators of autophagy in human lung from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).(More)
Autophagy, a cellular process for organelle and protein turnover, regulates innate immune responses. We demonstrate that depletion of autophagic proteins microtubule associated protein-1 light chain 3B (LC3B) and Beclin 1 enhances caspase-1 activation and secretion of interleukin-1β and interleukin-18. Autophagic protein depletion promoted accumulation of(More)
Experimental sepsis can be induced in mice using the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method, which causes polymicrobial sepsis. Here, a protocol is provided to induce sepsis of varying severity in mice using the CLP technique. Autophagy is a fundamental tissue response to stress and pathogen invasion. Two current protocols to assess autophagy in vivo in(More)