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BACKGROUND In Tanzania, many people seek malaria treatment from retail drug sellers. The National Malaria Control Program identified the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program as a private sector mechanism to supplement the distribution of subsidized artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) from public facilities and increase access to the(More)
Problems with the quality of medicines abound in countries where regulatory and legal oversight are weak, where medicines are unaffordable to most, and where the official supply often fails to reach patients. Quality is important to ensure effective treatment, to maintain patient and health-care worker confidence in treatment, and to prevent the development(More)
INTRODUCTION Retail drug sellers are a major source of health care and medicines in many countries. In Tanzania, drug shops are widely used, particularly in rural and underserved areas. Previously, the shops were allowed to sell only over-the-counter medicines, but sellers who were untrained and unqualified often illegally sold prescription drugs of(More)
Medicines of uncertain quality, safety and efficacy can be worse than no treatment at all. It is the responsibility of national medicines regulatory authorities to protect patients from harm. Yet, there are great disparities in regulatory capacity globally, preventing large populations from accessing the benefits of advances in the pharmaceutical field.(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Artemisinin combination therapies such as artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are effective for first-line treatment of uncomplicated acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the safety profile of AL in large populations has not been fully assessed. The objective of this study was to establish the safety of AL in public health(More)
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