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The continuing rise in atmospheric [CO2] is predicted to have diverse and dramatic effects on the productivity of agriculture, plant ecosystems and gas exchange. Stomatal pores in the epidermis provide gates for the exchange of CO2 and water between plants and the atmosphere, processes vital to plant life. Increased [CO2] has been shown to enhance anion(More)
Soluble amyloid-β oligomers (Aβo) trigger Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology and bind with high affinity to cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). At the postsynaptic density (PSD), extracellular Aβo bound to lipid-anchored PrP(C) activates intracellular Fyn kinase to disrupt synapses. Here, we screened transmembrane PSD proteins heterologously for the(More)
Seed storage proteins are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as precursors and then transported to protein storage vacuoles, where they are processed into mature forms. Here, we isolated an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, maigo2 (mag2), that accumulated the precursors of two major storage proteins, 2S albumin and 12S globulin, in dry seeds. mag2(More)
The histidine-containing dipeptide carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) has been shown to significantly contribute to the physicochemical buffering in skeletal muscles, which maintains acid-base balance when a large quantity of H(+) is produced in association with lactic acid accumulation during high-intensity exercise. The purpose of the present study was(More)
To investigate the time-course of changes in transverse relaxation time (T2) and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps muscle after a single session of eccentric exercise, magnetic resonance imaging was performed on six healthy male volunteers before and at 0, 7, 15, 20, 30 and 60 min and 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 168 h after exercise. Although there(More)
Roots display hydrotropism in response to moisture gradients, which is thought to be important for controlling their growth orientation, obtaining water, and establishing their stand in the terrestrial environment. However, the molecular mechanism underlying hydrotropism remains unknown. Here, we report that roots of the Arabidopsis mutant mizu-kussei1(More)
Roots respond not only to gravity but also to moisture gradient by displaying gravitropism and hydrotropism, respectively, to control their growth orientation, which helps plants obtain water and become established in the terrestrial environment. As gravitropism often interferes with hydrotropism, however, the mechanisms of how roots display hydrotropism(More)
We examined the effect of differences in exercise intensity on the time constant (t c) of phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis after exercise and the relationships betweent c and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in endurance-trained runners (n = 5) and untrained controls (n = 7) (average VO2max = 66.2 and 52.0 ml · min−1 · kg−1, respectively). To measure the(More)
BACKGROUND Pyridine nucleotides are essential for electron transport and serve as co-factors in multiple metabolic processes in all organisms. Each nucleotide has a particular role in metabolism. For instance, the NAD/NADP ratio is believed to be responsible for sustaining the functional status of plant cells. However, since enzymes involved in the(More)
Swine genomic DNA segments containing repetitive sequences were isolated from a porcine genomic library using genomic DNA as a probe. Three fragments containing the repetitive sequences from two of the primary phage clones were subcloned for sequence analysis, which revealed six new PRE-1 repetitive families other than those reported earlier by Singer et(More)