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We have investigated the incidence of Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) associated with outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Osaka City, Japan, since April 1996 using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and electron microscopy methods. From the results of the first 3 years, between April 1996 and March 1999, we previously reported that multiple genetic(More)
Noroviruses (NVs) are the major cause of food- and waterborne nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Japan. Between April 2002 and March 2003, a total of 111 fecal specimens from 40 outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Osaka City, Japan were subject to NV detection. Seventy-two samples (64.9%) from 31 outbreaks (77.5%) were NV positive by a real time(More)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SCoV) causes a recently emerged human disease associated with pneumonia. The 5' end two-thirds of the single-stranded positive-sense viral genomic RNA, gene 1, encodes 16 mature proteins. Expression of nsp1, the most N-terminal gene 1 protein, prevented Sendai virus-induced endogenous IFN-beta mRNA(More)
Enterovirus 68 strains were detected in 14 specimens from children with respiratory tract infections and 1 specimen from a child with febrile convulsions during 2010 in Osaka, Japan. These strains had deletions in the 5' untranslated region and were genetically different from reported strains. This virus is associated with respiratory tract infections in(More)
Murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) gene 1 encodes several nonstructural proteins. The functions are unknown for most of these nonstructural proteins, including p28, which is encoded at the 5' end of the MHV genome. Transient expression of cloned p28 in several different cultured cells inhibited cell growth, indicating that p28 expression(More)
BACKGROUND Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is one of the etiological agents of respiratory tract infection (RTI). Because clinical symptoms of hMPV resemble those caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), clinical diagnosis of hMPV infection is difficult. Moreover, hMPV isolation using cultured cells is generally difficult and not efficient compared with(More)
Enteric viruses are an important cause of viral food-borne disease. Shellfish, especially oysters, are well recognized as a source of food-borne diseases, and oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks have on occasion become international occurrences. In this study, 286 fecal specimens from 88 oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks were examined for(More)
Surveillance of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) infections in cases of pediatric gastroenteritis between April 1996 and March 2000 showed that NLVs were an important causative agent in viral gastroenteritis cases among children between November and January in those years. The predominant type of NLV was closely related to Lordsdale virus in genogroup 2. During the(More)
During the 2009-2010 season, a significant numerical increase of genotype GII.2 norovirus (NoV)-associated outbreaks was observed in Osaka City, Japan. The most common genotype in that season was GII.2 (44.6%), followed by GII.4 (39.2%). Mostly, GII.2 strains were associated with outbreaks in children and with person-to-person contact. The National(More)
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is one of the etiological agents of acute respiratory tract infections. From June 2005 to May 2006, we collected 185 clinical specimens from children in Osaka City, Japan, and detected 41 hMPV RNA. Of the 41 specimens, four (9.8%) also contained other viruses (3 with adenovirus [AdV] and 1 with respiratory syncytial virus(More)