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Environmental DNA (eDNA) from aquatic vertebrates has recently been used to estimate the presence of a species. We hypothesized that fish release DNA into the water at a rate commensurate with their biomass. Thus, the concentration of eDNA of a target species may be used to estimate the species biomass. We developed an eDNA method to estimate the biomass of(More)
Knowledge of the presence of an invasive species is critical to monitoring the sustainability of communities and ecosystems. Environmental DNA (eDNA), DNA fragments that are likely to be bound to organic matters in the water or in shed cells, has been used to monitor the presence of aquatic animals. Using an eDNA-based method, we estimated the presence of(More)
Food webs may be affected by evolutionary processes, and effective evolutionary time ultimately affects the probability of species evolving to fill the niche space. Thus, ecosystem history may set important evolutionary constraints on community composition and food web structure. Food chain length (FCL) has long been recognized as a fundamental ecosystem(More)
Recent increases in air temperature have affected species phenology, resulting in the earlier onset of spring life-cycle events. Trends in the first appearance of adult dragonflies across Japan were analysed using a dataset consisting of observations from 1953 to 2005. Dynamic factor analysis was used to evaluate underlying common trends in a set of 48 time(More)
We investigated the expression and localization of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in synovial fluid and synovial tissue, and examined the stimulation of HO-1 production in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). Synovial fluid samples were obtained from knee joints of 20 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 20 osteoarthritis (OA) patients, and concentration of HO-1 and(More)
We conducted experiments to determine isotope changes in the deposit-feeding chironomid larvae Chironomus acerbiphilus during feeding, starvation and metamorphosis. Isotope changes in chironomid larvae occurred mainly during growth and rarely afterward. This finding indicates that chironomid isotope turnover mainly occurs in conjunction with growth and(More)
An environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis method has been recently developed to estimate the distribution of aquatic animals by quantifying the number of target DNA copies with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). A new quantitative PCR technology, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), partitions PCR reactions into thousands of droplets and detects the amplification in(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether depsipeptide (FK228), a histone deacetylase (HDA) inhibitor, has inhibitory effects on the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and to examine the effects of systemic administration of FK228 in an animal model of arthritis. METHODS Autoantibody-mediated arthritis (AMA) was induced in(More)
The export of certain nuclear proteins is involved in the regulation of various nuclear functions, including transcription. In some cases, the export of target proteins is induced upon environmental or cellular cues, resulting in conditional gene expression. The small Maf proteins appear to be critical regulators of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, an anti-oxidant(More)
Mechanical stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cartilage destruction seen in osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated the effect of cyclic tensile stress (CTS) on the anabolic and catabolic gene expression of rat cultured normal chondrocytes using the Flexercell strain unit. The effects of interleukin (IL)-4, a chondroprotective cytokine, on the(More)