Hideya Koshino

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An fMRI study was used to measure the brain activation of a group of adults with high-functioning autism compared to a Full Scale and Verbal IQ and age-matched control group during an n-back working memory task with letters. The behavioral results showed comparable performance, but the fMRI results suggested that the normal controls might use verbal codes(More)
Brain activation and functional connectivity were investigated in high functioning autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging in an n-back working memory task involving photographic face stimuli. The autism group showed reliably lower activation compared with controls in the inferior left prefrontal area (involved in verbal processing and working(More)
Is there a difference in the kind of attention elicited by an abrupt-onset peripheral cue and that elicited by an instruction (e.g., a central arrow cue) to move attention to a peripheral location? In Experiment 1, we found that peripheral cues are no more effective in orienting attention than are central cues. No evidence was found for separable(More)
Young and older adults searched for a target character in a 3-item display. On each trial, both a symbolic cue (arrow at fixation) and a spatial cue (abrupt onset of one item) could indicate the target's position. Participants were told to use the central arrow cue on all trials because it had 75% validity. The onset cue also had 75% validity for half the(More)
BACKGROUND The anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibits activation during some cognitive tasks, including episodic memory, reasoning, attention, multitasking, task sets, decision making, mentalizing, and processing of self-referenced information. However, the medial part of anterior PFC is part of the default mode network (DMN), which shows deactivation(More)
This study investigated the ability of color and motion to elicit and maintain visual attention in a sample of children with cortical visual impairment (CVI). It found that colorful and moving objects may be used to engage children with CVI, increase their motivation to use their residual vision, and promote visual learning. The data presented in this(More)
Two visual search experiments were conducted to examine how activation of target-relevant features and inhibition of target-irrelevant features are involved in conjunction search. The hypothesis was that if an excitatory mechanism is involved, it should be revealed as facilitation when a target and distractors are repeated in two successive displays. If an(More)
the “framing effect” is observed when the description of options in terms of gains (positive frame) rather than losses (negative frame) elicits systematically different choices. Few theories explain the framing effect by using cognitive information–processing principles. In this paper we present an explanatory theory based on the cost-benefit tradeoffs(More)
The relative effectiveness of central arrow, peripheral arrow, and abrupt-onset cues was assessed in a character recognition task. On each trial, either a central or a peripheral arrow cue was presented 0, 100, or 200 msec before the appearance of a three-digit display. Two of the digits were "uncamouflaged" from previous figure-eight masks, whereas the(More)
In this fMRI study, we examined the relationship between activations in the inferotemporal region (ventral pathway) and the parietal region (dorsal pathway), as well as in the prefrontal cortex (associated with working memory), in a modified mental rotation task. We manipulated figural complexity (simple vs. complex) to affect the figure recognition process(More)