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The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) cascade is an important contributor to synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory. ERK activation by the MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) leading to cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation is implicated in the formation of long-term memory. We(More)
Female mice which have mated and are subsequently exposed to the odour (pheromones) of a strange male undergo hormonal changes resulting in a block to their pregnancy. The fact that the stud male's odours can also block pregnancies, that is other than his own, implies the formation of a memory or some form of recognition process by the female for this(More)
The SNAP receptor (SNARE) complex is a core complex specialized for synaptic vesicle exocytosis, and the binding of SNAPs to the complex is an essential step for neurotransmitter release. Complexin I and II have been identified as SNARE-complex-associated proteins. Importantly, complexins compete with alpha-SNAP for binding to the complex, suggesting that(More)
Although capsaicin has been shown to activate certain neuronal groups in the hypothalamus and amygdala, the neurotransmitters involved and the exact mechanism of action are not clearly understood at present. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the effect of capsaicin in the rat hypothalamus and amygdala primarily involves direct(More)
The complexity and inaccessibility of the mammalian brain prevent the localization and description of memory traces and the definition of the processes that produce memories. The model reviewed here is the olfactory recognition memory formed to male pheromones by a female mouse at mating. The memory trace has been localized to the reciprocal dendrodendritic(More)
Female mice form an olfactory memory of male pheromones at mating; exposure to the pheromones of a strange male after that mating will block pregnancy. The formation of this memory is mediated by the accessory olfactory system, in which an increase in norepinephrine after mating reduces inhibitory transmission of gamma-aminobutyric acid from the granule(More)
Female mice develop a long-lasting olfactory recognition memory of a partner male at the first relay in the vomeronasal system. In this study the synaptic plasticity relevant to this phenomenon was examined at reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses in the accessory olfactory bulb of female mice by electron microscopy. The size of asymmetrical excitatory(More)
Expanding on research showing that oxytocin originating in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus acts to decrease olfactory processing at the level of the olfactory bulb, we explored the importance of oxytocin acting on the olfactory bulb for the onset of maternal behaviour in Wistar rats. Experiment I was designed to test whether spontaneous maternal(More)
Electrical stimulation of the rat A1 noradrenergic region produced excitation (77%) of the activity of putative vasopressin (VP)-secreting neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and produced excitation (4%), inhibition (26%) and excitation-inhibition (11%) of the activity of PVN neurons that were not antidromically identified by neurohypophysial(More)