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During heart development the second heart field (SHF) provides progenitor cells for most cardiomyocytes and expresses the homeodomain factor Nkx2-5. We now show that feedback repression of Bmp2/Smad1 signaling by Nkx2-5 critically regulates SHF proliferation and outflow tract (OFT) morphology. In the cardiac fields of Nkx2-5 mutants, genes controlling(More)
Diverse histone modifications are catalysed and recognized by various specific proteins, establishing unique modification patterns that act as transcription signals. In particular, histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 36 (H3K36me3) is associated with actively transcribed regions and has been proposed to provide landmarks for continuing transcription;(More)
Pitx2 is left--right (L--R) asymmetrically expressed initially in the lateral plate and later in primordial visceral organs. The transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that underlie L--R asymmetric expression of Pitx2 were investigated. Mouse Pitx2 has a left side-specific enhancer (ASE) that mediates both the initiation and maintenance of L--R asymmetric(More)
Retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A, plays a pivotal role in vertebrate development. The level of RA may be determined by the balance between its synthesis and degradation. We have examined the role of CYP26, a P450 enzyme that may degrade RA, by generating mutant mice that lack CYP26. CYP26(-/-) mice exhibited anomalies, including caudal(More)
Substantial insight has recently been achieved into the mechanisms responsible for the generation of left-right (L-R) asymmetry in the vertebrate body plan. However, the mechanism that underlies the initial breaking of symmetry has remained unclear. In the mouse, a leftward fluid flow on the ventral side of the node caused by the vortical motion of cilia(More)
FoxH1 (FAST) is a transcription factor that mediates signaling by transforming growth factor-beta, Activin, and Nodal. The role of FoxH1 in development has now been investigated by the generation and analysis of FoxH1-deficient (FoxH1(-/-)) mice. The FoxH1(-/-) embryos showed various patterning defects that recapitulate most of the defects induced by the(More)
The essential roles of SHH in anteroposterior (AP) and AER-FGF signalling in proximodistal (PD) limb bud development are well understood. In addition, these morphoregulatory signals are key components of the self-regulatory SHH/GREM1/AER-FGF feedback signalling system that regulates distal progression of limb bud development. This study uncovers an(More)
The past decade or so has seen rapid progress in our understanding of how left-right (LR) asymmetry is generated in vertebrate embryos. However, many important questions about this process remain unanswered. Although a leftward flow of extra-embryonic fluid in the node cavity (nodal flow) is likely to be the symmetry-breaking event, at least in the mouse(More)
Laterality of the internal organs of vertebrates is determined by asymmetric Nodal signalling in the lateral plate mesoderm. A deficiency of such signalling results in heterotaxia syndrome, characterized by anomalous laterality of visceral organs and complex congenital heart conditions. Pitx2, the transcription factor induced by the Nodal signal, regulates(More)
Left-right (L-R) asymmetry in the mouse embryo is generated in the node and is dependent on cilia-driven fluid flow, but how the initial asymmetry is transmitted from the node to the lateral plate has remained unknown. We have now identified a transcriptional enhancer (ANE) in the human LEFTY1 gene that exhibits marked L>R asymmetric activity in perinodal(More)