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During heart development the second heart field (SHF) provides progenitor cells for most cardiomyocytes and expresses the homeodomain factor Nkx2-5. We now show that feedback repression of Bmp2/Smad1 signaling by Nkx2-5 critically regulates SHF proliferation and outflow tract (OFT) morphology. In the cardiac fields of Nkx2-5 mutants, genes controlling(More)
Substantial insight has recently been achieved into the mechanisms responsible for the generation of left-right (L-R) asymmetry in the vertebrate body plan. However, the mechanism that underlies the initial breaking of symmetry has remained unclear. In the mouse, a leftward fluid flow on the ventral side of the node caused by the vortical motion of cilia(More)
Diverse histone modifications are catalysed and recognized by various specific proteins, establishing unique modification patterns that act as transcription signals. In particular, histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 36 (H3K36me3) is associated with actively transcribed regions and has been proposed to provide landmarks for continuing transcription;(More)
The past decade or so has seen rapid progress in our understanding of how left-right (LR) asymmetry is generated in vertebrate embryos. However, many important questions about this process remain unanswered. Although a leftward flow of extra-embryonic fluid in the node cavity (nodal flow) is likely to be the symmetry-breaking event, at least in the mouse(More)
Unidirectional fluid flow plays an essential role in the breaking of left-right (L-R) symmetry in mouse embryos, but it has remained unclear how the flow is sensed by the embryo. We report that the Ca(2+) channel Polycystin-2 (Pkd2) is required specifically in the perinodal crown cells for sensing the nodal flow. Examination of mutant forms of Pkd2 shows(More)
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a congenital heart defect inherited via complex genetic and/or environmental factors. We report detailed mapping in extended TAPVR kindreds and mutation analysis in TAPVR patients that implicate the PDGFRA gene in the development of TAPVR. Gene expression studies in mouse and chick embryos for both the(More)
Laterality of the internal organs of vertebrates is determined by asymmetric Nodal signalling in the lateral plate mesoderm. A deficiency of such signalling results in heterotaxia syndrome, characterized by anomalous laterality of visceral organs and complex congenital heart conditions. Pitx2, the transcription factor induced by the Nodal signal, regulates(More)
Determination of left-right asymmetry in mouse embryos is achieved by a leftward fluid flow (nodal flow) in the node cavity that is generated by clockwise rotational movement of 200-300 cilia in the node. The precise action of nodal flow and how much flow input is required for the robust read-out of left-right determination remains unknown. Here we show(More)
In the node of mouse embryo, rotational movements of cilia generate an external liquid flow known as nodal flow, which determines left-right asymmetric gene expression. How nodal flow is converted into asymmetric gene expression is still controversial, but the increase of Ca(2+) levels in endodermal cells to the left of the node has been proposed to play a(More)
In the early vertebrate embryo, cardiac progenitor/precursor cells (CPs) give rise to cardiac structures. Better understanding their biological character is critical to understand the heart development and to apply CPs for the clinical arena. However, our knowledge remains incomplete. With the use of single-cell expression profiling, we have now revealed(More)