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Abnormalities in L-glutamic acid (glutamate) and GABA signal transmission have been postulated to play a role in depression, but little is known about the underlying molecular determinants and neural mechanisms. Microarray analysis of specific areas of cerebral cortex from individuals who had suffered from major depressive disorder demonstrated significant(More)
Apamin-sensitive small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SKCa1-3) mediate the slow afterhyperpolarization in neurons, but the molecular identity of the channel has not been defined because of the lack of specific inhibitors. Here we describe the structure-based design of a selective inhibitor of SKCa2. Leiurotoxin I (Lei) and PO5, peptide(More)
In this report we describe findings that imply dysregulation of several fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system transcripts in frontal cortical regions of brains from human subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). This altered gene expression was discovered by microarray analysis of frontal cortical tissue from MDD, bipolar, and nonpsychiatric control(More)
Knowledge or experience is voluntarily recalled from memory by reactivation of the neural representations in the cerebral association cortex. In inferior temporal cortex, which serves as the storehouse of visual long-term memory, activation of mnemonic engrams through electric stimulation results in imagery recall in humans, and neurons can be dynamically(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the current status of catheter intervention in Kawasaki disease and to evaluate its efficacy and outcome. STUDY DESIGN A questionnaire was sent to 55 major institutions in Japan. RESULTS A total of 58 procedures in 57 patients were reported. The median age at the time of intervention was 12.1 years. The procedures included(More)
The conjugative plasmid pYI17 (57.5 kb) isolated from Enterococcus faecalis YI717 confers a pheromone response on the host and encodes the bacteriocin 31 gene. Bacteriocin 31 is active against E. hirae 9790, E. faecium, and Listeria monocytogenes. pYI17 was mapped physically by restriction enzyme analysis and the relational clone method. Deletion mutant and(More)
Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED, MIM 131300) is an autosomal dominant, progressive diaphyseal dysplasia characterized by hyperosteosis and sclerosis of the diaphyses of long bones. We recently assigned the CED locus to an interval between D19S422 and D19S606 at chromosome 19q13.1-q13.3, which two other groups confirmed. As the human transforming growth(More)
Mitochondrial defects in gene expression have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. We have now contrasted control brains with low pH versus high pH and showed that 28% of genes in mitochondrial-related pathways meet criteria for differential expression. A majority of genes in the mitochondrial, chaperone and(More)
BACKGROUND Microcinephotography was used to study a model of persistent truncus arteriosus created in chick embryos by ablation of premigratory neural crest destined for the third and fourth aortic arch arteries as well as the septum of the cardiac outflow tract. METHODS AND RESULTS Twenty-five control embryos and 105 of 202 experimental embryos were(More)
The long-term administration of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, produces coronary vascular remodeling and myocardial hypertrophy in animals. This study used a rat model to investigate the role of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) in the pathogenesis of such changes. We studied the following(More)