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The transcriptional co-repressor CtBP (C-terminal binding protein) is implicated in tumorigenesis because it is targeted by the adenovirus E1A protein during oncogenic transformation. Genetic studies have also identified a crucial function for CtBP in animal development. CtBP is recruited to DNA by transcription factors that contain a PXDLS motif, but the(More)
E2F-6 contributes to gene silencing in a manner independent of retinoblastoma protein family members. To better elucidate the molecular mechanism of repression by E2F-6, we have purified the factor from cultured cells. E2F-6 is found in a multimeric protein complex that contains Mga and Max, and thus the complex can bind not only to the E2F-binding site but(More)
In most animals, the gonads develop symmetrically, but most birds develop only a left ovary. A possible role for estrogen in this asymmetric ovarian development has been proposed in the chick, but the mechanism underlying this process is largely unknown. Here, we identify the molecular mechanism responsible for this ovarian asymmetry. Asymmetric PITX2(More)
The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 gene encodes a multifunctional oncoprotein that can subvert multiple cellular regulatory pathways. The best-known cellular targets of the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein are the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRB and the related pocket proteins p107 and p130. However, there is ample evidence that E7 has additional(More)
Genetic deficiencies in transcription factors can lead to the loss of certain types of cells and tissue. The steroidogenic tissue-specific nuclear receptor Ad4BP/SF-1 (NR5A1) is one such gene, because mice in which this gene is disrupted fail to develop the adrenal gland and gonads. However, the specific role of Ad4BP/SF-1 in these biological events remains(More)
An orphan nuclear receptor, Ad4 binding protein/steroidogenic factor 1 (Ad4BP/SF-1), is essential for the development and function of steroidogenic tissues. To examine the transcriptional regulation of Ad4BP/SF-1, two-hybrid screening was performed, and the sumoylation [conjugation of a small ubiqutin-like modifier (SUMO-1)] components Ubc9, protein(More)
Assembly of multi-protein complexes on promoter and enhancer elements is a prerequisite for onset of gene transcription. At the beginning of this process, transcription factors are thought to act as nucleating centers for complex formation through the binding of their target DNA sequences, and thereafter recruit coactivators. Here, we investigated this(More)
The small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO conjugates transcription factors and suppresses their respective activation of target genes. Although various SUMO-modified transcription factors have been isolated, mechanisms whereby sumoylated-substrates modulate transcription remain unknown. Here, we purified ARIP4 (AR interacting protein 4, a Rad54 family member(More)
Development of the testis begins with the expression of the SRY gene in pre-Sertoli cells. Soon after, testis cords containing Sertoli and germ cells are formed and fetal Leydig cells subsequently develop in the interstitial space. Studies using knockout mice have indicated that multiple genes encoding growth factors and transcription factors are implicated(More)
Sox9 is a transcription factor that is required for tissue development in mammals. In general, such transcription factors require co-regulators for precise temporal and spatial control of the activation and inactivation of the numerous genes necessary for precise development during embryogenesis. Here we identify a new Sox9 co-regulator: Using affinity(More)