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The magnetization of a magnetic material can be reversed by using electric currents that transport spin angular momentum. In the reciprocal process a changing magnetization orientation produces currents that transport spin angular momentum. Understanding how these processes occur reveals the intricate connection between magnetization and spin transport, and(More)
Current-induced effective magnetic fields can provide efficient ways of electrically manipulating the magnetization of ultrathin magnetic heterostructures. Two effects, known as the Rashba spin orbit field and the spin Hall spin torque, have been reported to be responsible for the generation of the effective field. However, a quantitative understanding of(More)
Nonvolatile logic-in-memory architecture, where nonvolatile memory elements are distributed over a logic-circuit plane, is expected to realize both ultra-low-power and reduced interconnection delay. This paper presents novel nonvolatile logic circuits based on logic-in-memory architecture using magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) in combination with MOS(More)
Splenic inflammatory pseudotumor is a rare pathology, and the literature stresses the difficulty of preoperative diagnosis. There are no previous reports of contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings for this tumor in the literature. Our case appears to be the first to be examined using this technique. In our case, contrast-enhanced ultrasound showed the mass to(More)
The electrical manipulation of magnetism and magnetic properties has been achieved across a number of different material systems. For example, applying an electric field to a ferromagnetic material through an insulator alters its charge-carrier population. In the case of thin films of ferromagnetic semiconductors, this change in carrier density in turn(More)