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The pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease is unknown, but nigral degeneration and depigmentation are associated with microglial inflammation and anti-inflammatory medications appear to protect against the disease. The possibility that humoral immunity may play a role in initiating or regulating the inflammation has been suggested by experimental(More)
The minimization of a genome is necessary to identify experimentally the minimal gene set that contains only those genes that are essential and sufficient to sustain a functioning cell. Recent developments in genetic techniques have made it possible to generate bacteria with a markedly reduced genome. We developed a simple system for formation of markerless(More)
Deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) has been observed in several neurodegenerative diseases. The six isoforms of tau are divided into two main groups including three repeat (3R) and four repeat (4R) microtubule-binding domains. Using quantitative RT-PCR method and immunohistochemistry with phosphorylation dependent anti-tau antibody (AT8), we(More)
Lewy bodies (LBs), whose major component is alpha-synuclein, are a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) but have rarely been reported in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Whether LBs in PSP represent the aging process or the coexistence of PD remains unclear. We found LBs in 5 of 16 patients with PSP. In 4 patients LBs were distributed(More)
There is an ongoing demand to improve the ATP-regenerating system for industrial ATP-driven bioprocesses because of the low efficiency of ATP regeneration. To address this issue, we investigated the efficiency of ATP regeneration in Escherichia coli using the Permeable Cell Assay. This assay identified 40 single-gene deletion strains that had over 150%(More)
Vascular dementia is caused by blockage of blood supply to the brain, which causes ischemia and subsequent lesions primarily in the white matter, a key characteristic of the disease. In this study, we used a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rat model to show that the regeneration of white matter damaged by hypoperfusion is enhanced by inhibiting(More)
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a major neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by mental retardation and autistic behavior. Mutation of the MeCP2 gene, encoding methyl CpG-binding protein 2, causes the disease. The pathomechanism by which MeCP2 dysfunction leads to the RTT phenotype has not been elucidated. We found that MeCP2 directly regulates expression of(More)
Research programmes for constructing a 'cell factory' have been funded in several countries. In Japan, the 'Minimum genome factory' (MGF) project was launched in 2001. In this project, several model microbes have been genetically reconstructed to obtain a cell with fewer genes on a chromosome of reduced size. A microbe with a 'minimum genome' is expected to(More)
Mutations in parkin gene are responsible for autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (ARPD) and its loss-of-function is assumed to affect parkin ubiquitin ligase activity. Accumulation of its substrate may induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra (SN) of ARPD. Here, we show that parkin interacts with programmed cell death-2 isoform 1(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether oral care contributes to preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in ICU patients. DESIGN Nonrandomized trial with historical controls. SETTING A medical-surgical ICU in a university hospital. PATIENTS 1,666 mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the ICU. INTERVENTION Oral care was provided to 1,252(More)