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The unfolded protein response (UPR) controls the levels of molecular chaperones and enzymes involved in protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We recently isolated ATF6 as a candidate for mammalian UPR-specific transcription factor. We report here that ATF6 constitutively expressed as a 90-kDa protein (p90ATF6) is directly converted to a 50-kDa(More)
When unfolded proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), transcription of glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) representing ER-resident molecular chaperones is markedly induced via the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. In contrast to recent progress in the analysis of yeast UPR, both cis-acting elements and transactivators responsible for(More)
Transcription of genes encoding molecular chaperones and folding enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is induced by accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. This intracellular signaling, known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), is mediated by the cis-acting ER stress response element (ERSE) in mammals. In addition to ER chaperones, the(More)
An intracellular signaling from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the nucleus, called the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated when unfolded proteins are accumulated in the ER under a variety of stress conditions ("ER stress"). We and others recently identified Hac1p/Ern4p as a transcription factor responsible for the UPR in Saccharomyces(More)
BACKGROUND Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers the transcriptional induction of molecular chaperones and folding enzymes localized in the ER. Thus, eukaryotic cells possess an intracellular signalling pathway from the ER to the nucleus, called the unfolded protein-response (UPR) pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae,(More)
As the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system, astrocytes are positioned to nurture and sustain neurons, especially in response to cellular stresses, which occur in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. In a previous study (Hori, O., Matsumoto, M., Kuwabara, K., Maeda, M., Ueda, H., Ohtsuki, T., Kinoshita, T., Ogawa, S., Kamada, T., and Stern, D.(More)
The chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT) is a molecular chaperone consisting of eight subunit species and assists in the folding of actin, tubulin and some other cytosolic proteins. We examined the stress response of CCT subunit proteins in mammalian cultured cells using chemical stressors that cause accumulation of unfolded proteins. Levels of CCT subunit(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) the changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation in the prefrontal cortex of poststroke patients with hemiplegia performing several rehabilitation tasks and to analyze the different effects of the tasks. DESIGN Case series pilot study. SETTING Hospitals and facilities near Tsukuba, Japan.(More)
Plasmids that can be used for controlled expression of the DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE and/or GroEL-GroES chaperone team were constructed in order to facilitate assessment of the effects of these chaperone teams on folding or assembly or recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. A typical pACYC184-based plasmid which was obtained could express the major DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE(More)
Eukaryotic cells control the levels of molecular chaperones and folding enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by a transcriptional induction process termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The mammalian UPR is mediated by the cis-acting ER stress response element consisting of 19 nt (CCAATN(9)CCACG), the CCACG part of which is considered to provide(More)