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mTORC1 promotes cell growth in response to nutrients and growth factors. Insulin activates mTORC1 through the PI3K-Akt pathway, which inhibits the TSC1-TSC2-TBC1D7 complex (the TSC complex) to turn on Rheb, an essential activator of mTORC1. However, the mechanistic basis of how this pathway integrates with nutrient-sensing pathways is unknown. We(More)
PURPOSE Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and related growth factors: transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha, heprin-ding (HB)-EGF, and amphiregulin (AR), have been shown to stimulate events associated with epithelial wound repair. These growth factors function by binding to a common EGF receptor (EGFR), tyrosine kinase. We have used in vivo and organ culture(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate if recurrent autoimmunity explained hyperglycemia and C-peptide loss in three immunosuppressed simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplant recipients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We monitored autoantibodies and autoreactive T-cells (using tetramers) and performed biopsy. The function of autoreactive T-cells was studied with in(More)
MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancers and has been related to cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion; however, the function of miR-21 is unknown in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). The purpose of this study was to examine miR-21 expression in OTSCC, correlate it with clinicopathological factors, and(More)
The role of T cells in innate immunity is not well defined. In this report, we show that a subset of human peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells responds to IL-12 plus IL-18, but not to IL-12 or IL-18 alone, by producing IFN-γ in the absence of any antigenic stimulation or cell proliferation. Intracellular staining reveals a small percentage of resting CD4(+) T(More)
Explant cultures were established from adult human retina tissues obtained from 20 individuals (age range 19-79), 7-45 hr postmortem, and maintained for the period of up to 4 months. Forty percent of these cultures (eight out of 20 cases) produced healthy and viable cultures as judged by phase contrast microscopy and by electron microscopy. Phase contrast(More)
A dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine was combined with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or other conformal radiotherapy (RT), assuming minimal immunosup-pression by such RT modalities. In this study, the outcomes in the first 40 patients are presented. The patients had recurrent, metastatic or locally advanced tumors. Nine had previously undergone(More)
We have analyzed the structures of glycosphingolipids and intracellular free glycans in human cancers. In our previous study, trace amounts of free N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)-containing complex-type N-glycans with a single GlcNAc at each reducing terminus (Gn1 type) was found to accumulate intracellularly in colorectal cancers, but were undetectable(More)
PURPOSE Several recent studies suggest that some chemokines/chemokine receptors are involved in choroidal neovascularization (CNV). CXCR3 was the focus of the present study because microarray analysis for murine laser-induced CNV model showed the increased expression of CXCR3. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of CXCR3 on CNV. METHODS(More)
PURPOSE It has been shown that vaccination with peptides derived from human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) induces cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with potent cytotoxicity against endothelial cells expressing VEGFR2 in a A2/Kb transgenic mice system expressing human HLA-A*0201. The present study examined the efficacy of this(More)