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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has its onset in middle age and is a progressive disorder characterized by degeneration of motor neurons of the primary motor cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. Most cases of ALS are sporadic, but about 10% are familial. Genes known to cause classic familial ALS (FALS) are superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), ANG encoding(More)
Although there is evidence that sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) activation occurs following experimental brain injury, there is little information about its metabolic pathway in cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the sphingosine metabolic pathway including S1P1 and sphingosine kinases 1 (SphK1) and 2 (SphK2)(More)
Elucidating the neural and genetic factors underlying psychiatric illness is hampered by current methods of clinical diagnosis. The identification and investigation of clinical endophenotypes may be one solution, but represents a considerable challenge in human subjects. Here we report that mice heterozygous for a null mutation of the alpha-isoform of(More)
Serotonergic antidepressant drugs have been commonly used to treat mood and anxiety disorders, and increasing evidence suggests potential use of these drugs beyond current antidepressant therapeutics. Facilitation of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus has been suggested to be a candidate mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs, but this(More)
Many psychiatric disorders emerge after adolescence. Among a variety of predisposing factors, prenatal stress has been thought to cause the symptoms of anxiety disorders. We recently reported that prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure, which mimics some aspects of prenatal stress, induced anxiety-related behaviors in male offspring when they reached(More)
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in the calpain 3 gene (CAPN3), which encodes the skeletal muscle-specific calpain, calpain 3 (also known as p94). However, the precise mechanism by which p94 functions in the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. Here, using p94 knockin mice (termed(More)
Cerebellar GABAergic inhibitory transmission is under heterosynaptic control mediated by diverse chemical messengers. Here, we investigated roles of metabotropic P2Y purinoceptors (P2YRs) on GABAergic synapses between cerebellar interneurons and Purkinje cells (PCs). Activation of P2Y purinoceptors by two selective agonists, ADP and 2-methylthio-ADP(More)
BACKGROUND Local anesthetics alleviate neuropathic pain in some cases in clinical practice, and exhibit longer durations of action than those predicted on the basis of the pharmacokinetics of their blocking effects on voltage-dependent sodium channels. Therefore, local anesthetics may contribute to additional mechanisms for reversal of the sensitization of(More)
Cerebellar outputs from the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) are critical for generating and controlling movement. DCN neuronal activity is primarily controlled by GABAergic inhibitory transmission by Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex and is also modulated by nerve inputs originating from other brain regions within and outside the cerebellum. In this(More)
Mazindol, an appetite suppressant, inhibits the reuptake of dopamine in the synaptic cleft. It has been considered that mazindol might enhance dopamine transmission in the human brain. However, there has been no study that investigated the extracellular dopamine concentration in vivo. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we aimed to measure the effect(More)