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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize distinct microbial components and induce innate immune responses. TLR5 is triggered by bacterial flagellin. Here we generated Tlr5-/- mice and assessed TLR5 function in vivo. Unlike other TLRs, TLR5 was not expressed on conventional dendritic cells or macrophages. In contrast, TLR5 was expressed mainly on intestinal(More)
Both Helicobacter pylori and "Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii" infections are associated with peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. However, good animal models of H. pylori clinical diseases are rare. In this study, we aimed to establish an animal model of "Candidatus Helicobacter(More)
Perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns by host cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) triggers the intracellular activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. However, it is not known how PRRs transmit immune signals to MAPK cascades in plants. Here, we identify a complete phospho-signaling transduction pathway from(More)
To clarify the effector sites of lansoprazole in the colonic mucosa during the formation of colitis, dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis was induced by the oral administration of 3% aqueous solution for 3 and 7 days. The effector sites of [3H]lansoprazole were examined by the intra-aortic infusion of the radiolabelled compound and the autoradiographic(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, similar to various facultative intracellular pathogens, has been shown to respond to the hostile conditions inside macrophages of the host organism by inducing stress proteins, such as DnaK. DnaK forms a chaperone machinery with the cochaperones DnaJ and GrpE. To elucidate the role of the DnaK chaperone machinery in(More)
Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), antagonizes RANKL's osteoclastogenic function in bone. We previously demonstrated that systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mice elevates OPG levels and reduces RANKL levels in peripheral blood. Here, we show that mice infected with Salmonella,(More)
The AGC kinase OsOxi1, which has been isolated as an interactor with OsPti1a, positively regulates basal disease resistance in rice. In eukaryotes, AGC kinase family proteins are regulated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (Pdk1). In Arabidopsis, AtPdk1 directly interacts with phosphatidic acid, which functions as a second messenger in both(More)
Studies on the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infections in mice have revealed the presence of two prominent virulence characteristics-the invasion of the nonphagocytic cells to penetrate the intestinal epithelium and the proliferation within host phagocytic cells to cause a systemic spread and the colonization of host organs. We(More)
The spv genes carried on the Salmonella virulence plasmid are commonly associated with severe systemic infection in experimental animals. The SpvB virulence-associated protein has been shown to ADP-ribosylate actin, and this enzymatic activity is essential for virulence in mice. Here, we present evidence that intracellular expression of SpvB protein induces(More)
Helicobacter heilmannii has been reported to cause gastric low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type (MALT) lymphoma, but its precise pathophysiological mechanism remains to be clarified. We recently established a model of gastric B-cell MALT lymphoma in C57BL/6 mice by means of peroral infection of H. heilmannii primarily obtained from cynomolgus(More)