Learn More
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize distinct microbial components and induce innate immune responses. TLR5 is triggered by bacterial flagellin. Here we generated Tlr5-/- mice and assessed TLR5 function in vivo. Unlike other TLRs, TLR5 was not expressed on conventional dendritic cells or macrophages. In contrast, TLR5 was expressed mainly on intestinal(More)
Both Helicobacter pylori and "Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii" infections are associated with peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. However, good animal models of H. pylori clinical diseases are rare. In this study, we aimed to establish an animal model of "Candidatus Helicobacter(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, similar to various facultative intracellular pathogens, has been shown to respond to the hostile conditions inside macrophages of the host organism by inducing stress proteins, such as DnaK. DnaK forms a chaperone machinery with the cochaperones DnaJ and GrpE. To elucidate the role of the DnaK chaperone machinery in(More)
Studies on the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infections in mice have revealed the presence of two prominent virulence characteristics-the invasion of the nonphagocytic cells to penetrate the intestinal epithelium and the proliferation within host phagocytic cells to cause a systemic spread and the colonization of host organs. We(More)
The ClpXP protease is a member of the ATP-dependent protease family and plays a dynamic role in the control of availability of regulatory proteins and the breakdown of abnormal and misfolded proteins. The proteolytic activity is rendered by the ClpP component, while the substrate specificity is determined by the ClpX component that has ATPase activity. We(More)
The AGC kinase OsOxi1, which has been isolated as an interactor with OsPti1a, positively regulates basal disease resistance in rice. In eukaryotes, AGC kinase family proteins are regulated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (Pdk1). In Arabidopsis, AtPdk1 directly interacts with phosphatidic acid, which functions as a second messenger in both(More)
We evaluated the efficacy of mutants with a deletion of the stress response protease gene as candidates for live oral vaccine strains against Salmonella infection through infection studies with mice by using a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant with a disruption of the ClpXP or Lon protease. In vitro, the ClpXP protease regulates flagellum(More)
Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), antagonizes RANKL's osteoclastogenic function in bone. We previously demonstrated that systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mice elevates OPG levels and reduces RANKL levels in peripheral blood. Here, we show that mice infected with Salmonella,(More)
The intracellular parasite Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes a typhoid-like systemic disease in mice. Whereas the survival of Salmonella in phagocytes is well understood, little has been documented about the exit of intracellular Salmonella from host cells. Here we report that in a population of infected macrophages Salmonella induces(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Our recent study revealed that per oral infection with Helicobacter heilmannii induced low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in the gastric fundus of C57BL/6 mice after a period of 6 months, although the pathophysiological mechanism of lymphoma expansion remains to be clarified. The present study was undertaken to(More)