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Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) that are available from cell banks can be induced to differentiate into various cell types, thereby making them practical potential sources for cell-based therapies. In injured peripheral nerves, Schwann cells (SCs) contribute to functional recovery by supporting axonal regeneration and myelin(More)
Cloning by nuclear transfer (NT) is an inefficient process in which most clones die before birth and survivors often display growth abnormalities. In an effort to correlate gene expression with survival and fetal overgrowth, we have examined imprinted gene expression in both mice cloned by nuclear transfer and in the embryonic stem (ES) cell donor(More)
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been generated by enforced expression of defined sets of transcription factors in somatic cells. It remains controversial whether iPSCs are molecularly and functionally equivalent to blastocyst-derived embryonic stem (ES) cells. By comparing genetically identical mouse ES cells and iPSCs, we show here that their(More)
To study whether cloning resets the epigenetic differences between the two X chromosomes of a somatic female nucleus, we monitored X inactivation in cloned mouse embryos. Both X chromosomes were active during cleavage of cloned embryos, followed by random X inactivation in the embryo proper. In the trophectoderm (TE), X inactivation was nonrandom with the(More)
Indeed human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are considered to be powerful tools in regenerative medicine. To enable the use of hiPSCs in the field of regenerative medicine, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of reprogramming during the transformation of somatic cells into hiPSCs. Genome-wide epigenetic modification constitutes a critical(More)
Understanding and harnessing cellular potency are fundamental in biology and are also critical to the future therapeutic use of stem cells. Transcriptome analysis of these pluripotent cells is a first step towards such goals. Starting with sources that include oocytes, blastocysts, and embryonic and adult stem cells, we obtained 249,200 high-quality EST(More)
We have recently presented evidence that the structural integrity of the mouse sperm nuclear matrix may be necessary for the proper unpackaging of sperm DNA for participation in embryogenesis. It is likely that the sperm nuclear matrix contributes to the organisation of the sperm DNA and its disturbance can seriously damage the paternal genome or its(More)
The reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency using defined transcription factors holds great promise for biomedicine. However, human reprogramming remains inefficient and relies either on the use of the potentially dangerous oncogenes KLF4 and CMYC or the genetic inhibition of the tumor suppressor gene p53. We hypothesized that inhibition of signal(More)
Fully differentiated neurons in adult mammalian brains do not divide; consequently, their metaphase chromosomes have never been examined. Here we report metaphase chromosome constitutions of cortical neurons in adult mice visualized by a nuclear transfer technique. We found that although some reconstructed oocytes cloned from neuronal nuclei have an(More)
BACKGROUND Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are currently used as powerful resources in regenerative medicine. During very early developmental stages, DNA methylation decreases to an overall low level at the blastocyst stage, from which embryonic stem cells are derived. Therefore, pluripotent stem cells, such as ES and iPS cells, are considered to(More)