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A new gene, termed klotho, has been identified that is involved in the suppression of several ageing phenotypes. A defect in klotho gene expression in the mouse results in a syndrome that resembles human ageing, including a short lifespan, infertility, arteriosclerosis, skin atrophy, osteoporosis and emphysema. The gene encodes a membrane protein that(More)
The zebrafish dorsal habenula (dHb) shows conspicuous asymmetry in its connection with the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) and is equivalent to the mammalian medial habenula. Genetic inactivation of the lateral subnucleus of dHb (dHbL) biased fish towards freezing rather than the normal flight response to a conditioned fear stimulus, suggesting that the(More)
Semaphorin 3A is a chemorepulsive axonal guidance molecule that depolymerizes the actin cytoskeleton and collapses growth cones of dorsal root ganglia neurons. Here we investigate the role of LIM-kinase 1, which phosphorylates an actin-depolymerizing protein, cofilin, in semaphorin 3A-induced growth cone collapse. Semaphorin 3A induced phosphorylation and(More)
The habenular neurons on both sides of the zebrafish diencephalon show an asymmetric (laterotopic) axonal projection pattern into the interpeduncular nucleus. We previously revealed that the habenula could be subdivided into medial and lateral subnuclei, and a prominent left-right difference in the size ratio of these subnuclei accounts for the asymmetry in(More)
Motor cortex neurons are activated at different times during self-initiated voluntary movement. However, the manner in which excitatory and inhibitory neurons in distinct cortical layers help to organize voluntary movement is poorly understood. We carried out juxtacellular and multiunit recordings from actively behaving rats and found temporally and(More)
The mammalian habenula is involved in regulating the activities of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. It consists of the medial and lateral habenulae, with each subregion having distinct neural connectivity. Despite the functional significance, manipulating neural activity in a subset of habenular pathways remains difficult because of the poor(More)
The habenulae are part of an evolutionarily highly conserved limbic-system conduction pathway that connects telencephalic nuclei to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) of the midbrain . In zebrafish, unilateral activation of the Nodal signaling pathway in the left brain specifies the laterality of the asymmetry of habenular size . We show "laterotopy" in the(More)
The mammalian habenula consists of the medial and lateral habenulae. Recent behavioral and electrophysiological studies suggested that the lateral habenula plays a pivotal role in controlling motor and cognitive behaviors by influencing the activity of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Despite the functional significance, manipulating neural activity(More)
The optic tectum is a visual center in vertebrates. It receives topographically ordered visual inputs from the retina in the superficial layers and then sends motor outputs from the deeper layers to the premotor reticulospinal system in the hindbrain. Although the topographic patterns of the retinotectal projection are well known, it is not yet well(More)
The amygdala is located in the caudal part of the ventral telencephalon. It is composed of many subdivisions and is involved in the control of emotion. It is important to know the mechanisms of amygdalar development in order to analyze the pathogenesis of emotional disorders, but they are still not adequately understood. In the present study the migration,(More)