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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
We have shown previously that chromosome VI of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains nine origins of DNA replication that differ in initiation frequency and replicate sequentially during the S phase of the cell cycle. Here we show that there are links between activation of these multiple origins and regulation of S-phase progression. We study the effects of a(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death, but the molecular mechanism for its development beyond its initiation has not been well characterized. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS-1; also known as JAB and SSI-1) switches cytokine signaling 'off' by means of its direct interaction with Janus kinase (JAK). We identified aberrant(More)
The unbinding and rebinding of motor proteins and their substrate filaments are the main components of sliding movement. We have measured the unbinding force between an actin filament and a single motor molecule of muscle, myosin, in the absence of ATP, by pulling the filament with optical tweezers. The unbinding force could be measured repeatedly on the(More)
BACKGROUND A complete set of nine ARSs was identified (the tenth ARS in this paper), mapped on chromosome VI of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and characterized for functional elements. RESULTS The level of activity of all ARSs as chromosomal replication origins was determined by neutral/neutral 2D gel-electrophoresis. These origins were classified into three(More)
CONTEXT Weekly teriparatide injection at a dose of 56.5 μg has been shown to increase bone mineral density. OBJECTIVE A phase 3 study was conducted to determine the efficacy of once-weekly teriparatide injection for reducing the incidence of vertebral fractures in patients with osteoporosis. DESIGN AND SETTING In this randomized, multicenter,(More)
A simple and inexpensive assay method of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of various biological materials has been developed. SOD activity can easily be measured by reading the medium's intense absorbance directly, and many samples can be treated in a short time using a reaction stopper which acts for a long time. Reproducibility of the assay method was(More)
Repair of cartilage injury with hyaline cartilage continues to be a challenging clinical problem. Because of the limited number of chondrocytes in vivo, coupled with in vitro de-differentiation of chondrocytes into fibrochondrocytes, which secrete type I collagen and have an altered matrix architecture and mechanical function, there is a need for a novel(More)