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Phencyclidine (PCP) reduced social behavior (SB) in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. However, no such SB deficit was observed on repeated treatment with methamphetamine for 14 days. The SB deficit produced by treatment with PCP (10 mg/kg/day) for 14 days, which persisted for 28 days after withdrawal, was attenuated by clozapine (10 mg/kg/day) given for 7(More)
Aging is a risk factor of human depression. Middle-aged or older men are vulnerable to adverse life events and an absence of social contact and easily become depressed. In the present study, we investigated the influence of aging on responses to life events in socially isolated conditions. We applied isolation-rearing (4 W) to two age groups, older (18 M)(More)
Isolation and acute environmental change are risk factors in human depression. In the present study, we investigated the differences in the brain monoamine activity of rats between two rearing conditions, isolated and group. Moreover, we examined the responses to novelty stress. Male F344 rats aged 11 weeks were divided into the above two groups. Four weeks(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that metabolic changes in the kynurenic acid (KYNA) pathway are related to the etiology of schizophrenia. The inhibitor of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is known to increase KYNA levels, and the KMO gene is located in the chromosome region associated with schizophrenia, 1q42-q44. Single-marker and haplotype analyses for(More)
We have reported that the microinjection of neostigmine into the hippocampus of rats induced responses similar to stress responses in terms of catecholamines and glucose in plasma. In order to test the hypothesis that hippocampal neostigmine injection is a possible animal model of acute stress responses, we investigated c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic(More)
The kynurenine (KYN) pathway, which is initiated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, is the main tryptophan (TRP) metabolic pathway. It shares TRP with the serotonin (5-HT) pathway. We investigated the influence of inescapable-predator (rat) stress on behavior and brain TRP metabolism in mice. Male ICR mice (4W) were exposed to 20-min inescapable-predator(More)
Moclobemide [Ro 11-1163, p-chloro-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)benzamide, AURORIX] is known as an antidepressant and a reversible inhibitor of type A monoamine oxidase. In the present study, a forced swimming test was applied to mice to evaluate behavioral and neurochemical effects of this drug. During forced swimming posture of immobility, a typical behavioral(More)
This study was designed to determine the effect of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in hippocampal cholinergic system-mediated activation of the hypothalamo--pituitary--adrenocortical (HPA) axis in the rat. Neurons in the BNST were lesioned by bilateral injection of the cell-selective neurotoxin, ibotenic acid (1.5 microg/microl of solution(More)
The serious and characteristic side effects of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy on the central nervous system, resulting in such problems as affective disorders or parkinsonism, have led us to investigate the biochemical mechanism of the effects of IFN-alpha on the monoaminergic neurotransmitter system using an animal model (rats). We first examined the(More)
As a stress model, a forced swimming test was applied to mice; and a typical behavioral change, an immobile posture, was recognized. This affected the brain monoamine levels significantly. The norepinephrine concentration was reduced, while that of its product was increased; and in the case of dopamine, both the amount of the amine and its product were(More)