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Ginsenoside Rb1 shows neuroprotective effects in various neurons, including dopaminergic cells. However, the precise mechanisms of action are uncertain. In this paper, we examine whether Rb1 has a neuroprotective effect on MPP(+)-induced apoptosis and attempt to clarify the signaling pathway in PC12 cells. Apoptosis of PC12 cells was determined by DNA(More)
This study explored the effects of 5 taste solutions (citric acid, sucrose, sodium chloride, caffeine, and sodium glutamate) versus water on the power frequency content of swallowing submental surface electromyography (sEMG). Healthy subjects were presented with 5 ml of each of 5 tastants and water. Data were collected in 3 trials of the 5 tastants and(More)
PURPOSE To study pathologic changes in the photoreceptors in eyes with idiopathic macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO). METHODS Thirteen eyes with nonproliferative MacTel type 2 and 10 normal eyes underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography(More)
compared with an historical gender-and age-matched control group of patients with ocular problems other than vascular occlusive disease from the same referral practice. Risk factors for CRVO were evaluated. ● CONCLUSIONS: We found many of the same risk factors previously identified for CRVO by other studies, but we identified both aspirin and warfarin use(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS To investigate the characteristics of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease. METHODS FAF photography with blue light (BL-FAF) and near-infrared light (NIR-FAF) was performed on 10 eyes of five patients using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope before and after treatment. The FAF images were followed(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the age-dependent morphologic alterations in the outer retina and choroid at the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS Thirty eyes (30 normal subjects; average age, 49 years) were examined; five (age range, third-eighth decades of life) had refractive errors of ±2 diopters or less and no fundus(More)
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