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In order to locate the site of action of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) within the human motor cortices, we investigated how the optimal positions for evoking motor responses over the scalp corresponded to the hand and leg primary-motor areas. TMS was delivered with a figure-8 shaped coil over each point of a grid system constructed on the skull(More)
We investigated the topography of human cortical activation during an antisaccade task by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We used a figure-eight shaped coil, with the stimulus intensity set just above the threshold for activation of the hand motor areas but weak enough not to elicit blinks. TMS was delivered at various time intervals (80,(More)
BACKGROUND The filamentous fungus T. reesei effectively degrades cellulose and is known to produce various cellulolytic enzymes such as beta-glucosidase, endoglucanase, and cellobiohydrolase. The expression levels of each cellulase are controlled simultaneously, and their ratios and synergetic effects are important for effective cellulose degradation.(More)
The cardinal pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered to be the increase in the activities of basal ganglia (BG) output nuclei, which excessively inhibits the thalamus and superior colliculus (SC) and causes preferential impairment of internal over external movements. Here we recorded saccade performance in 66 patients with PD and 87(More)
OBJECTIVES The basal ganglia (BG) play an important role in controlling saccades. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is widely used as a treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) by altering the function of the BG. Nevertheless, the effects of STN DBS on saccade performance are not fully clarified in a systematic manner. In this study,(More)
We reviewed basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) based on recent findings on saccade performance. Hypometria in all saccade paradigms and impaired initiation of internally triggered saccades such as memory guided saccades (MGS) are reported, whereas visually guided saccades (VGS) are relatively spared, although they are also mildly(More)
In a retrospective brain magnetic resonance imaging study, we evaluated the prevalence and severity of signal hyperintensities in 30 elderly depressed patients and 30 controls matched for age, sex and cerebrovascular risk factors. A semiquantitative scoring method was used to grade findings in T2-weighted and proton density images. The elderly depressed(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate abnormalities in visual scanning when Parkinson's disease patients view images of varying complexity. Eighteen nondemented Parkinson's disease patients and 18 normal subjects participated in the study. The ocular fixation position during viewing visual images was recorded using an eye-tracking device. The number(More)
BACKGROUND Hydrolysis of cellulose requires the action of the cellulolytic enzymes endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase and β-glucosidase. The expression ratios and synergetic effects of these enzymes significantly influence the extent and specific rate of cellulose degradation. In this study, using our previously developed method to optimize(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate where neurologists look when they view brain computed tomography (CT) images and to evaluate how they deploy their visual attention by comparing their gaze distribution with saliency maps. Brain CT images showing cerebrovascular accidents were presented to 12 neurologists and 12 control subjects. The subjects' ocular(More)