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The telencephalon shows the greatest degree of size variation in the vertebrate brain. Understanding the genetic cascade that regulates telencephalon growth is crucial to our understanding of how evolution of the normal human brain has supported such a variation in size. Here, we present a simple and quick approach to analyze this cascade that combines(More)
Half a century ago, thalidomide was widely prescribed to pregnant women as a sedative but was found to be teratogenic, causing multiple birth defects. Today, thalidomide is still used in the treatment of leprosy and multiple myeloma, although how it causes limb malformation and other developmental defects is unknown. Here, we identified cereblon (CRBN) as a(More)
Islet-1 (Isl1) is a member of the Isl1 family of LIM-homeodomain transcription factors (LIM-HD) that is expressed in a defined subset of motor and sensory neurons during vertebrate embryogenesis. To investigate how this specific expression of isl1 is regulated, we searched for enhancers of the isl1 gene that are conserved in vertebrate evolution. Initially,(More)
Many studies have investigated performance improvement through exploiting instruction-level parallelism (ILP) with a particular architecture. Unfortunately, these studies indicate performance improvement using the number of cycles that are required to execute a program, but do not quantitatively estimate the penalty imposed on the cycle time from the(More)
Recent mobile processors are required to exhibit both low-energy consumption and high performance. To satisfy these requirements, dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is currently employed. However, its effectiveness will be limited in the future because of shrinking the variable supply voltage range. As an alternative, we previously proposed pipeline stage(More)
Cereblon (CRBN), the molecular target of lenalidomide and pomalidomide, is a substrate receptor of the cullin ring E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, CRL4(CRBN) . T cell co-stimulation by lenalidomide or pomalidomide is cereblon dependent: however, the CRL4(CRBN) substrates responsible for T cell co-stimulation have yet to be identified. Here we demonstrate that(More)
—The tradeoff between complexity and attained instructions per cycle is often an important issue in microarchi-tectural designs. In this design phase, quick quantification of the complexity (i.e., delay) of relevant structures is required. The issue queue is one of such complex structures for which it is difficult to estimate delay. In this paper, we(More)
— Two-step physical register deallocation (TSD) is an architectural scheme, which enhances memory-level parallelism (MLP) by pre-executing instructions. Ideally, the TSD allows MLP under the unlimited number of physical registers to be exploited, and consequently only a small register file is necessary for MLP. In practice, however, the amount of MLP(More)
Speculative execution is execution of instructions before it is known whether these instructions should be executed. Compiler-based speculative execution has the potential to achieve both a high instruction per cycle rate and high clock rate. Pure compiler-based approaches, however, have greatly limited instruction scheduling due to a limited ability to(More)