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We examine the effect on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis of prolonged exposure to low levels of formaldehyde in female C3H/He mice, using immunocytochemical and RT-PCR methods. Two groups of female mice were exposed to differing concentrations (0, 80, 400, 2000 ppb) of formaldehyde inhalation for 16 h/day, 5 days/week, for 12 weeks. The(More)
Humans are exposed to nanoparticles (NPs; diameter < 100 nm) from ambient air and certain workplaces. There are two main types of NPs; combustion-derived NPs (e.g., particulate matters, diesel exhaust particles, welding fumes) and manufactured or engineered NPs (e.g., titanium dioxide, carbon black, carbon nanotubes, silver, zinc oxide, copper oxide).(More)
We examined the effects of inhalative exposure to formaldehyde (FA, 400 ppb) on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits (NR2A and NR2B), dopamine receptor subtypes (D1 and D2), cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-1, CREB-2, FosB/DeltaFosB, and transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) in the hippocampus of(More)
Diesel exhaust particles are a major constituent of ambient particulate matter, and most particles emitted directly from diesel exhaust are smaller than 1microm in diameter. Recently, the toxicity of diesel engine-derived nanoparticles has come to be recognized as an emerging social issue. In the present study, we investigated spatial learning ability and(More)
In the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) of postnatal rats, apoptotic cells are detected more frequently in females than males. This sex difference is under the influence of aromatized androgen. We have reported that there are sex differences in the levels of Bcl-2 (female<male) and Bax (female>male) in the central division of the(More)
In this present study, we aimed to investigate the extracellular glutamate level and memory function-related gene expression in the mouse olfactory bulb after exposure of the animals to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NRDE) with or without bacterial cell wall component. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall component derived from Staphylococcus aureus, was(More)
We investigated the effect of exposure to nanoparticle-rich diesel exhaust (NRDE) on hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory function-related gene expressions in female mice. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, middle-dose NRDE (M-NRDE), high-dose NRDE (H-NRDE) or filtered diesel exhaust (F-DE) for three months. A Morris water maze(More)
OBJECTIVE A recent study from our research group showed that repeated exposure to low-level formaldehyde (FA) increases the production of nerve growth factor, involving the survival and maintenance of neurons, in the hippocampus of immunized mice. In the present study, we examined the effects of FA on apoptotic mechanisms regulating survival and death of(More)
Toluene, a widely used aromatic organic solvent, has been well characterized as a neurotoxic chemical. Although the neurobehavioral effects of toluene have been studied substantially, the mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. Hippocampus, which is one of the limbic areas of brain associated with neuronal plasticity, and learning and memory(More)
D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist, is a well-known cognitive enhancer. To investigate the effect of DCS in cognitive function following toluene exposure, eight-week-old male C3H/HeN mice were exposed to filtered air (0 ppm) or 50 ppm toluene for 6 h a day on 5 consecutive days a week for 6 weeks. The day after the(More)